In the emerging era of Internet of Things (IoT), power sources for wireless sensor nodes in conjunction with efficient and secure wireless data transfer are required. Energy harvesting technologies are promising solution toward meeting the requirements for sustainable power sources for the IoT. In this review, we focus on approaches for harvesting stray vibrations and magnetic field due to their abundance in the environment. Piezoelectric materials and piezoelectric–magnetostrictive [magnetoelectric (ME)] composites can be used to harvest vibration and magnetic field, respectively. Currently, such harvesters use modified lead zirconate titanate (or lead-based) piezoelectric materials and ME composites. However, environmental concerns and government regulations require the development of a suitable lead-free replacement for lead-based piezoelectric materials. In the past decade, several lead-free piezoelectric compositions have been developed and demonstrated with promising piezoelectric response. This paper reviews the significant results reported on lead-free piezoelectric materials with respect to high-density energy harvesting, covering novel processing techniques for improving the piezoelectric response and temperature stability. The review of the state-of-the-art studies on vibration and magnetic field harvesting is provided and the results are used to discuss various strategies for designing high-performance energy harvesting devices.
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D.M. would like to acknowledge the financial support from Office of Basic Energy Science, Department of Energy, through grant number DE-FG02-06ER46290. H-C.S. and S.P. would like to acknowledge NSF-CREST Grant No. HRD 1547771. M-G.K. was supported through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0376). N.S. was supported through Office of Naval Research. R.S. and Y.Y. would like to acknowledge financial support through National Science Foundation I/UCRC program. H.-C.S. was supported by the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST) grant by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. CAP-17-04-KRISS). KIMS and YU teams would like to acknowledge the support from National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant No. NRF-2016R1A2B4011663), the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST) grant by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. CAP-17-04-KRISS), and the U.S. Office of Naval Research Global (Grant No. N62909-16-1-2135).
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Maurya, D., Peddigari, M., Kang, MG. et al. Lead-free piezoelectric materials and composites for high power density energy harvesting. Journal of Materials Research 33, 2235–2263 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2018.172