A pure and (Fe–Ni) doped tin oxide thin films were formed on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating method. Some characterization techniques are used as X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the effect of method conditions and dopants on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of thin films. According to XRD results, no phase attributed to Fe or Ni were detected, which suggests the incorporation of Fe and Ni in SnO2 network. All the diffraction peaks can be assigned as rutile phase of pure SnO2 except (111) is attributed to cubic phase. The optic analyses have shown an average transmittance between 70 and 90%, and showed a direct band gap reducing with increase in Fe doping (3.82–3.72 eV) and Ni content (3.82–3.69 eV). AFM images have revealed that surface roughness is affected strongly by deposition conditions and dopant contents.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
H.J. Snaith and C. Ducati: SnO2-based dye-sensitized hybrid solar cells exhibiting near unity absorbed photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. Nano Lett. 10, 1259 (2010).
S. Rani, S.C. Roy, and M.C. Bhatnagar: Effect of Fe doping on the gas sensing properties of nano-crystalline SnO2 thin films. Sens. Actuators, B 122, 204 (2007).
G.U. Feng, S.F. Wang, M.K. Lu, Y.X. Qi, G.J. Zhou, D. Xu, and D.R. Yuan: Luminescent characteristics of Eu3+ in SnO2 nanoparticles. Opt. Mater. 25, 59 (2004).
H. Wang, F. Sun, Y. Zhang, L. Li, H. Chen, Q. Wu, and J.C. Yu: Photochemical growth of nanoporous SnO2 at the air–water interface and its high photocatalytic activity. J. Mater. Chem. 20, 5641 (2010).
F. Gu, S.F. Wang, M.K. Lü, G.J. Zhou, D. Xu, and D.R. Yuan: Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel method. J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8119 (2004).
Y. Wang, J. Ma, F. Ji, X. Yu, and H. Ma: Structural and photoluminescence characters of SnO2:Sb films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. J. Lumin. 114, 71 (2005).
E. Elangovan, S.A. Shivashankar, and K. Ramamurthi: Studies on structural and electrical properties of sprayed SnO2:Sb films. J. Cryst. Growth 276, 215 (2005).
A.F. Cabrera, A.M.M. Navarro, C. Torres, and F.H. Sánchez: Mechanosynthesis of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 398, 215 (2007).
R. Adhikari, A.K. Das, D. Karmakar, T.V.C. Rao, and J. Ghatak: Structure and magnetism of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 78, 024404 (2008).
L.P. Chikhale, J.Y. Patil, A.V. Rajgure, F.I. Shaikh, I.S. Mulla, and S.S. Suryavanshi: Co-precipitation synthesis of nanocrystalline SnO2: Effect of Fe doping on structural, morphological and ethanol vapor response properties. Measurement 57, 46 (2014).
A.B. Bhise, D.J. Late, B.R. Sathe, and M.A. More: Field emission investigation of single Fe-doped SnO2 wire. Solid State Sci. 11, 1114 (2009).
M. Seo, Y. Akutsu, and H. Kagemoto: Preparation and properties of Sb-doped SnO2/metal substrates by sol–gel and dip coating. Ceram. Int. 33, 625 (2007).
K. Subramanyam, N. Sreelekha, G. Murali, R.D. Amaranatha, and R.P. Vijayalakshmi: Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cr doped SnO2 nanoparticles stabilized with polyethylene glycol. Phys. B 454, 86 (2014).
M. Sumaira, A.M. Shahnawaze, and Alimuddin: Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of (Fe, Co) co-doped SnO2 diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures. Phys. E 65, 84 (2015).
B. Sathyaseelan, K. Senthilnathan, T. Alagesan, R. Jayavel, and K. Sivakumar: A study on structural and optical properties of Mn- and Co-doped SnO2 nanocrystallites. Mater. Chem. Phys. 124, 1046 (2010).
M. Caglar and K. Cemil Atar: Effect of both deposition temperature and indium doping on the properties of sol–gel dip-coated SnO2 films. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 96, 882 (2012).
S. Aditya, V. Mayora, K. Shalendra, K.D. Verma, and K. Ravi: Magnetic properties of Fe and Ni doped SnO2 nanoparticles. Nanomater. Nanotechnol. 1, 29 (2011).
R.B. Vasiliev, M.N. Rumyantseva, N.V. Yakovlev, and A.M. Gaskov: CuO/SnO2 thin film heterostructures as chemical sensors to H2S. Sens. Actuators, B 50, 186 (1998).
L. Shi, K. Bao, J. Cao, and Y. Qian: Controlled fabrication of SnO2 solid and hollow nanocubes with a simple hydrothermal route. Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 152511 (2008).
M.S. Tong, G.R. Dai, and D.S. Gao: Gas-sensing properties of PdO-modified SnO2–Fe2O3 double-layer thin-film sensor prepared by PECVD technique. Vacuum 59, 877 (2000).
G.T. Ang, G.H. Toh, M.Z. Abu Bakar, A.Z. Abdullah, and M.R. Othman: High sensitivity and fast response SnO2 and La-SnO2 catalytic pellet sensors in detecting volatile organic compounds. Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 89, 186 (2011).
V. Brinzari, G. Korotcenkov, V. Golovanov, J. Schwank, V. Lantto, and S. Saukko: Morphological rank of nano-scale tin dioxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis from SnCl4_5H2O water solution. Thin Solid Films 408, 51 (2002).
M.M. Bagheri-Mohagheghi, N. Shahtahmasebi, M.R. Alinejad, A. Youssefi, and M. Youssefi: The effect of the post-annealing temperature on the nano-structure and energy band gap of SnO2 semiconducting oxide nano-particles synthesized by polymerizing–complexing sol–gel method. Phys. B 403, 2431 (2008).
K. Vadivel, V. Arivazhagan, and S. Rajesh: Room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni implanted SnO2 nanopowders. Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. 1, 492 (2011).
A.L. Patterson: The Scherer formula for X-ray particle size determination. Phys. Rev. 56, 978 (1939).
K. Nomura, J. Okabayashi, K. Okamura, and Y. Yamada: Magnetic properties of Fe and Co codoped SnO2 prepared by sol–gel method. J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083901 (2011).
Z.R. Khan, M.S. Khan, M. Zulfequar, and M.S. Khan: Optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films fabricated by sol–gel method. Mater. Sci. Appl. 2, 340 (2011).
Z. Pan, P. Zhang, X. Tian, G. Cheng, Y. Xie, H. Zhang, X. Zeng, C. Xiao, G. Hu, and Z. Wei: Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol–gel method. J. Alloys Compd. 576, 31 (2013).
L. Xu and X. Li: Influence of Fe-doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method. J. Cryst. Growth 312, 851 (2010).
J.H. Lee and B.O. Park: Transparent conducting ZnO: Al, in and Sn thin films deposited by the sol–gel method. Thin Solid Films 426, 94 (2003).
A.D. Tariq and A.A. Karrar: Effect of doping by Mg on the optical and structural properties of SnO2 nanoparticles. Int. J. Adv. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2, 857 (2015).
S.S. Lekshmy, G.P. Daniel, and K. Joy: Microstructure and physical properties of sol gel derived SnO2:Sb thin films for optoelectronic applications. Appl. Surf. Sci. 274, 95 (2013).
F. Moure-Flores, A. Guillén-Cervantes, and K.E. Nieto-Zepeda: SnO2:F thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering: Effect of the SnF2 amount in the target on the physical properties. Rev. Mex. Fis. 59, 335 (2013).
T. Demet and D. Bahattin: The relationship between the doping levels and some physical properties of SnO2:F thin films spray-deposited on optical glass. Pramana 79, 137 (2012).
S. Khodja, T. Touam, A. Chelouche, and F. Boudjouan: Effects of stabilizer ratio on structural, morphological, optical and waveguide properties of ZnO nano-structured thin films by a sol–gel process. Superlattices Microstruct. 75, 485 (2014).
D.Y.T. Martinez, R.C. Perez, G.T. Delgado, and O.Z. Angel: Structural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic characterization of ZnO–SnO2 thin films prepared by the sol–gel technique. J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 235, 49 (2012).
J.H. Adawiya, A.S. Khalid, and Z.Y. Khaled: Ag doped tin-oxide laser deposition (PLD). J. College. Education. 6th Conf. Phys. 3, 181 (2009).
P.S. Shajira, M. Junaid Bushiri, B.B. Nair, and P.V. Ganesh Chandra: Energy band structure investigation of blue and green light emitting Mg doped SnO2 nanostructures synthesized by combustion method. J. Lumin. 145, 425 (2014).
J.H. Lee and B.O. Park: Transparent conducting ZnO:Al, In and Sn thin films deposited by the sol–gel method. Thin Solid Films 426, 94 (2003).
L. Znaidi: Sol–gel-deposited ZnO thin films: A review. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 174, 18 (2010).
S.M. Salaken, E. Farzana, and J. Podder: Effect of Fe-doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis. J. Semicond. 34, 7 (2013).
C.M. Muiva, Y.S. Sathiaraj, and K. Maabong: Effect of doping concentration on the properties of aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrode applications. Ceram. Int. 37, 555 (2011).
This work was supported by Active Components and Materials Laboratory, University of Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria. The authors are grateful to G. Brahim of Biskra University, Algeria, and G. Nadia of OEB University, Algeria for their help in using the X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy.
About this article
Cite this article
Benkara, S., Ghamri, H., Rechem, D. et al. Effect of experimental parameters and (Fe, Ni) doping on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated SnO2 films. Journal of Materials Research 32, 1594–1602 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2017.98