As an atomic-thick layer material, graphene has a large specific surface area, high electron mobility, and high sensitivity to electronic perturbations from the binding of molecules, all of which are attractive properties for developing electronic sensing devices. This article focuses on graphene-based electronic sensors [field effect transistor (FET) sensors] for detecting biomolecules, including DNA, protein, and bacteria, among others. This article will cover three morphologies of graphene materials in biosensing applications: graphene nanosheet, graphene nanoribbon, and vertically-aligned graphene. The unique structure and electronic properties of graphene enable the FET sensor for the low concentration and rapid detection of biomolecules, thereby addressing the limitations of conventional optical sensing technologies such as ELISA, Western Blot, and electrochemical method. The advantages of graphene-based sensing technology are highlighted and recent progress on graphene-based electronic sensors for detecting biomolecules is reviewed and discussed.
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Mao, S., Chen, J. Graphene-based electronic biosensors. Journal of Materials Research 32, 2954–2965 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2017.129