Synthesis of gold nanoparticles resistant to pH and salt for biomedical applications; functional activity of organic amine


The potency of many biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); i.e., (i) bioimaging, (ii) diagnostic, (iii) therapeutic, (iv) drug carriers, and (v) immunochemical properties; are limited due its sensitivity toward salt and pH allowing variation in nanogeometry during practical applications. Such limitations directed the synthesis of AuNPs having extreme salt and pH resistant ability which has been undertaken in current research program. It has been found that the pH and salt tolerance ability of AuNPs are dependent on the nature of reducing and stabilizing agents. The use of organic amine containing reagents, i.e., polyethylenimine, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, in the presence of formaldehyde is examined that allows controlled and rapid synthesis of AuNPs having salt and pH tolerance ability. The mechanism justifying these properties of as-made AuNPs are presented herein. These reagents not only allow the synthesis of monometallic nanoparticles (NPs) but also enable the synthesis of bimetallic and trimetallic NPs. The synthesis of Au–Ag/Ag–Au, Pd-Au/Ag@(PdAu) NPs are examined involving the contribution of organic amine.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

FIG. 1
FIG. 2
FIG. 3
FIG. 4
FIG. 5


  1. 1.

    L. Zhang, F.X. Gu, J.M. Chan, A.Z. Wang, R.S. Langer, and O.C. Farokhzad: Nanoparticles in medicine: Therapeutic applications and developments. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 83, 761 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    M.E. Davis, Z.G. Chen, and D.M. Shin: Nanoparticle therapeutics: An emerging treatment modality for cancer. Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 7, 771 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    L. Wang, M.B. O’Donoghue, and W. Tan: Nanoparticles for multiplex diagnostics and imaging. Nanomedicine 1, 413 (2006).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    M.E. Gindy and R.K. Prud’homme: Multifunctional nanoparticles for imaging, delivery and targeting in cancer therapy. Expert Opin. Drug Delivery 6, 865 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M.R. Kumar, G. Hellermann, R.F. Lockeyand, and S.S. Mohapatra: Nanoparticle-mediated gene delivery: State of the art. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 4, 1213 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A. Ragusa, I. García, and S. Penadés: Nanoparticles as nonviral gene delivery vectors. IEEE Trans Nanobiosci. 6, 319 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    V. Sokolova and M. Epple: Inorganic nanoparticles as carriers of nucleic acids into cells. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 1382 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    S. Jin, J.C. Leach, and K. Ye: Nanoparticle-mediated gene delivery. Methods Mol. Biol. 544, 547 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    E.H. Chowdhury and T. Akaike: Bio-functional inorganic materials: An attractive branch of gene-based nano-medicine delivery for 21st century. Curr. Gene Ther. 5, 669 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    P.S. Ghosh, C.K. Kim, G. Han, N.S. Forbes, and V.M. Rotello: Efficient gene delivery vectors by tuning the surface charge density of amino acid-functionalized gold nanoparticles. ACS Nano 2, 2213 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    P.C. Pandey and D.S. Chauhan: 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane mediated in situ synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles: Application to hydrogen peroxide sensing. Analyst 137, 376 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    P.C. Pandey, D. Pandey, and G. Pandey: 3 Aminopropyltrimethoxysialne and organic electron donors mediated synthesis of functional gold nanoparticles and their bioanalytical applications. RSC Adv. 4, 60563 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    P.C. Pandey, A.K. Pandey, and G. Pandey: Functionalized alkoxysilanes mediated controlled synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles dispersible in aqueous and non-aqueous medium. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14, 6606 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    P.C. Pandey and G. Pandey: Tunable functionality and nanogeometry in tetrahydrofuran hydroperoxide and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane mediated synthesis of gold nano-particles; Functional application in glutathione sensing. J. Mater. Chem. B 2, 3383 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    P.C. Pandey, G. Pandey, and R.J. Narayan: Controlled synthesis of polyethylenimine coated gold nanoparticles: Application in glutathione sensing and nucleotide delivery. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part B, (2016). doi:

  16. 16.

    P.C. Pandey and G. Pandey: Indian Patent. 4043/DEL/2014.

  17. 17.

    P.C. Pandey, G. Pandey, H. Jamal, and G. Pandey: Role of organic carbonyl moiety and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles specific to pH- and salt-tolerance. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16, 6155 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    P.C. Pandey and G. Pandey: One-pot two-step rapid synthesis of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-mediated highly catalytic Ag@(PdAu) trimetallic nanoparticles. Catal. Sci. Technol. 6, 3911 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    H. Zhu, Z. Pan, E.W. Hagaman, C. Liang, S.H. Overbury, and S. Dai: Facile one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles stabilized with bifunctional amino/siloxy ligands. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 287, 360 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    P.C. Pandey, S. Upadhyay, I. Tiwari, and S. Sharma: Novel ferrocene encapsulated palladium-linked ormosil based electrocatalytic biosensor; Role of reactive functional group. Electroanalysis 13, 1519 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    P.C. Pandey, S. Upadhyay, I. Tiwari, and S. Sharma: Functionalized ormosils-based biosensor probing a horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, H85 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    P.C. Pandey, S. Upadhyay, and H.C. Pathak: A new glucose biosensor based on sandwich configuration of organically modified sol–gel glass. Electroanalysis 11, 59 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    P.C. Pandey, S. Upadhyay, H.C. Pathak, I. Tiwari, and V. Tripathi: Studies on glucose biosensors based on nonmediated and mediated electrochemical oxidation of reduced glucose oxidase encapsulated within organically modified sol–gel glasses. Electroanalysis 11, 1251 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    A.P. Wight and M.E. Davis: Design and preparation of organic–inorganic hybrid catalysts. Chem. Rev. 102, 3589 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    P.C. Pandey, R. Singh, and A.K. Pandey: Tetrahydrofuran hydroperoxide and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane mediated synthesis of Pd, Pd–Au, Au–Pd nanoparticles: Role of palladium nanoparticles on the redox electrochemistry of ferrocene monocarboxylic acid. Electrochim. Acta 138, 163 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    P.C. Pandey and R. Singh: Controlled synthesis of Pd and Pd–Au nanoparticles: Effect of organic amine and silanol groups and morphology and polycrystallinity of nanomaterials. RSC Adv. 5, 10964 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    P.C. Pandey, R. Singh, and Y. Pandey: Controlled synthesis of functional Ag, Ag–Au/Au–Ag nanoparticles and their Prussian blue nanocomposites for bioanalytical applications. RSC Adv. 5, 49671 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Thanks to UGC for one time grant.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Prem C. Pandey.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pandey, P.C., Pandey, G. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles resistant to pH and salt for biomedical applications; functional activity of organic amine. Journal of Materials Research 31, 3313–3323 (2016).

Download citation