In this study, a system of triple liquid phases was developed using Li2CO3, Na2CO3, and K2CO3 to improve the densification of the akermanite scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS). The system formed a ternary liquid phase (Li2CO3–Na2CO3–K2CO3) at 399 °C, a binary liquid phase (Na2CO3–K2CO3) at 695 °C, and a unitary liquid phase (K2CO3) at 891 °C during sintering process. The effects of the liquid phases on the sinterability and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were investigated. The fracture toughness and compressive strength is increased by 43 and 152% with liquid phases increasing from 0 to 4 wt%, respectively. This was explained that liquid phases enhanced densification via improving diffusion kinetics and inducing particle rearrangement. In addition, the scaffolds maintained favorable hydroxyapatite (HA) formation ability and cell proliferation ability, which was proved by simulated body fluid (SBF) test and microculture tetrazolium test (MTT), respectively.
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This work was supported by the following funds: (1) The Natural Science Foundation of China (51575537, 81572577); (2) Overseas, Hong Kong & Macao Scholars Collaborated Researching Fund of National Natural Science Foundation of China (81428018); (3) Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (14JJ1006, 2016JJ1027); (4) The Project of Innovation-driven Plan of Central South University (2015CXS008, 2016CX023); (5) The fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing in NWPU (SKLSP201605); (6) The fund of the State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy; (7) The Open-End Fund for the Valuable and Precision Instruments of Central South University.
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Shuai, C., Duan, S., Wu, P. et al. Development of bioceramic bone scaffolds by introducing triple liquid phases. Journal of Materials Research 31, 3498–3505 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2016.356