Diffusion behavior of Sn atoms in Sn58Bi solder joints under the coupling effect of thermomigration and electromigration

Abstract

Thermomigration (TM) and electromigration (EM) are two persistent reliability issues and they generally appear concurrently in solder joints. Many previous studies have attempted to understand the fundamental principles behind these phenomena with the majority of which focusing their interest into the faster migration elements in solders like Bi, Ni, or Cu. However, Sn as the slower migration element has not received that much attention. In the present study, a special linearly symmetrical structure was used. An unusual TM phenomenon of Sn atoms in the Sn58Bi solder joint was observed. The unusual TM of Sn atoms along the vertical edges was attributed to the coupled effect of the EM in the horizontal direction and the TM in vertical direction. The relationships between the microstructural characteristics and the temperature distribution were established. The results also indicated that elevated temperature and sufficient thermal gradient were the two major factors that caused TM.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

FIG. 1
FIG. 2
FIG. 3
FIG. 4
FIG. 5
FIG. 6

References

  1. 1.

    C. Chen, H.M. Tong, and K.N. Tu: Electromigration and thermomigration in Pb-free flip-chip solder joints. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 40(1), 531 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    C. Chen and S.W. Liang: Electromigration issues in lead-free solder joints. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18(1), 259 (2006).

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    W.Y-P. Zhang Jin-Song, W. Yong-Guo, and T. Yuan: Thermomigration in micro interconnects in integrated circuits. Acta Phys. Sin. 59(6), 4395 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    F.Y. Ouyang and W.C. Jhu: Comparison of thermomigration behaviors between Pb-free flip chip solder joints and microbumps in three dimensional integrated circuits: Bump height effect. J. Appl. Phys. 113(4), 8 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    X. Gu, K.C. Yung, Y.C. Chan, and D. Yang: Thermomigration and electromigration in Sn8Zn3Bi solder joints. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 22(3), 217 (2011).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    X. Gu, K.C. Yung, and Y.C. Chan: Thermomigration and electromigration in Sn58Bi ball grid array solder joints. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 21(10), 1090 (2010).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    X. Gu and Y.C. Chan: Thermomigration and electromigration in Sn58Bi solder joints. J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 5 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    H.Y. Chen and C. Chen: Thermomigration of Cu–Sn and Ni–Sn intermetallic compounds during electromigration in Pb-free SnAg solder joints. J. Mater. Res. 26(8), 983 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    F. Guo, G. Xu, J. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Lei, Y. Shi, and X. Li: Resistance changes in eutectic Sn–Bi solder joints during electromigration. J. Electron. Mater. 38(12), 2756 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    H-Y. Chen, C. Chen, and K-N. Tu: Failure induced by thermomigration of interstitial Cu in Pb-free flip chip solder joints. Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122103 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    W. Yao and C. Basaran: Computational damage mechanics of electromigration and thermomigration. J. Appl. Phys. 114(10), 12 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    G.Q. Wei, L.C. Du, Y.P. Jia, and L. Qi: Effect of thermomigration on evolution of interfacial intermetallic compounds in Cu/Sn/Cu and Cu/Sn0.7Cu/Cu solder joints. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26(6), 4313 (2015).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    L. Qu, N. Zhao, H.T. Ma, H.J. Zhao, and M.L. Huang: In situ study on the effect of thermomigration on intermetallic compounds growth in liquid–solid interfacial reaction. J. Appl. Phys. 115(20), 6 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    F.Y. Ouyang and C.L. Kao: In situ observation of thermomigration of Sn atoms to the hot end of 96.5Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu flip chip solder joints. J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 9 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    F.Y. Ouyang, W.C. Jhu, and T.C. Chang: Thermal-gradient induced abnormal Ni3Sn4 interfacial growth at cold side in Sn2.5Ag alloys for three-dimensional integrated circuits. J. Alloys Compd. 580, 114 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    C.K. Lin, W.A. Tsao, Y.C. Liang, and C. Chen: Temperature-dependent failure mechanism of SnAg solder joints with Cu metallization after current stressing: Experimentation and analysis. J. Appl. Phys. 114(11), 7 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    A.T. Huang, A. Gusak, K. Tu, and Y-S. Lai: Thermomigration in SnPb composite flip chip solder joints. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141911 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    W.N. Hsu and F.Y. Ouyang: Effects of anisotropic beta-Sn alloys on Cu diffusion under a temperature gradient. Acta Mater. 81, 141 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    R. Zhang, G. Xu, X. Wang, F. Guo, A. Lee, and K.N. Subramanian: Electromigration in Sn–Bi modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. J. Electron. Mater. 39(12), 2513 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of this work from National Natural Science Foundation of China (51301007) and Beijing Nova program (xx2016118).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Fu Guo or Qian Liu or Limin Ma or Yong Zuo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Guo, F., Liu, Q., Ma, L. et al. Diffusion behavior of Sn atoms in Sn58Bi solder joints under the coupling effect of thermomigration and electromigration. Journal of Materials Research 31, 1793–1800 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2016.145

Download citation