Amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys have garnered interests in academia and industry due to their potentials for applications, such as power transformers, electric motors, and sensors. To achieve good glass formability, thermal stability, and prevent grain overgrowth, elements such as B, Nb, Ta, and Hf are used in many soft magnetic systems. However, the high price of these precursors results in expensive soft magnetic alloys. Herein, we report on substituting Ta and Hf with TaC and HfC, respectively, to significantly reduce the cost of Fe-based FINEMET and Co-based HTX005 alloys. Soft magnetic properties of these alloys are studied. The effect of thermal annealing and strain annealing on TaC and HfC substituted alloys are also investigated. Lastly, we discuss the cost analysis on these alloys. Using the synthesis route presented here, a cost reduction of up to 74% can be achieved.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
M.E. McHenry, M.A. Willard, and D.E. Laughlin: Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials for applications as soft magnets. Prog. Mater. Sci. 44, 291 (1999).
A.M. Leary, P.R. Ohodnicki, and M.E. McHenry: Soft magnetic materials in high-frequency, high-power conversion applications. JOM 64 (7), 772 (2012).
M.A. Willard and M. Daniil: Chapter Four—Nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys two decades of progress. Handb. Magn. Mater. 21, 173 (2013).
J.M.D. Coey: Magnetic materials. J. Alloys Compd. 326 (1), 2 (2001).
K.H.J. Buschow: Handbook of Magnetic Materials, Vol. 15 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2003).
M.A. Khan, Y. Chen, and P. Pillay: Application of soft magnetic composites to PM wind generator design. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meet. (2006).
J. Emsley: Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements (Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2003); p. 421.
M.E. McHenry, F. Johnson, H. Okumura, T. Ohkubo, A. Hsiao, V.R.V. Ramanan, and D.E. Laughlin: The kinetics of nanocrystallization and microstructural observations in FINEMET, NANOPERM and HITPERM nanocomposite magnetic materials. Scr. Mater. 48, 881 (2003).
H. Iwanabe, M.E. McHenry, B. Lu, and D.E. Laughlin: Thermal stability of the nanocrystalline Fe-Co-Hf-B-Cu alloy. J. Appl. Phys. 85 (8), 4424 (1999).
M.E. McHenry, M.A. Willard, H. Iwanabe, R.A. Sutton, Z. Turgut, A. Hsiao, and D.E. Laughlin: Nanocrystalline materials for high temperature soft magnetic applications: A current prospectus. Bull. Mater. Sci. 22, 495 (1999).
M.S. Lucas, W.C. Bourne, A.O. Sheets, L. Brunke, M.D. Alexander, J.M. Shank, E. Michel, S.L. Semiatin, J. Horwath, and Z. Turgut: Nanocrystalline Hf and Ta containing FeCo based alloys for high frequency applications. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 176, 1079 (2011).
M.E. McHenry and D.E. Laughlin: Nano-scale materials development for future magnetic applications. Acta Mater. 48 (1), 223 (2000).
M. Kopcewicz, A. Grabias, J. Latuch, and M. Kowalczyk: Soft magnetic amorphous Fe–Zr–Si(Cu) boron-free alloys. Mater. Chem. Phys. 126 (3), 669 (2011).
C.T. Liu and Z.P. Lu: Effect of minor alloying additions on glass formation in bulk metallic glasses. Intermetallics 13, 415 (2005).
M. Kopcewicz, A. Grabias, and J. Latuch: Magnetic properties of Fe80−xCoxZr7Si13 (x=0–30) amorphous alloys. J. Appl. Phys. 110, 103907 (2011).
J. Long, D.E. Laughlin, and M.E. McHenry: Structural and soft magnetic properties of a new nanocrystalline Fe-based and B-free alloy. J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07E708 (2008).
H. Okumura, D.E. Laughlin, and M.E. McHenry: Magnetic and structural properties and crystallization behavior of Si-rich FINEMET materials. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 267, 347 (2003).
K. Zabransky and Y. Jiraskova: Physical and chemical properties of FINEMET-type amorphous alloys. Acta Phys. Pol., A 113 (1), 123 (2008).
V.R.V. Ramanan and G.E. Fish: Crystallization kinetics in Fe−B−Si metallic glasses. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 2273 (1982).
I.W. Donald and H.A. Davies: The influence of transition metal substitutions on the formation, stability and hardness of some Fe- and Ni-based metallic glasses. Philos. Mag. A 42 (3), 277 (1980).
M. Kurniawan, V. Keylin, and M.E. McHenry: Alloy substituents for cost reduction in soft magnetic materials. J. Mater. Res. 30 (8), 1072–1077 (2015).
S.L. Chen, W. Liu, D.Y. Geng, X.G. Zhao, and Z.D. Zhang: Decomposition of B4C and magnetic properties of Nd–Fe–(B, C) alloys synthesized by mechanical alloying. J. Alloys Compd. 415, 271 (2006).
Y.C. Sui, Z.D. Zhang, Q.F. Xiao, W. Liu, X.G. Zhao, T. Zhao, and Y.C. Chuang: Nd - Fe - (C, B) permanent magnets made by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 8, 11231 (1996).
Y.C. Sui, Z.D. Zhang, Q.F. Xiao, W. Liu, T. Zhao, X.G. Zhao, and Y.C. Chuang: Structure, phase transformation and magnetic properties of Nd–Fe–C alloys made by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing. J. Alloys Compd. 267, 215 (1998).
X.C. Kou, X.K. Sun, Y.C. Chuang, R. Grossinger, and H.R. Kirchmayr: Structure and magnetic properties of R2Fe14B1−xCx compounds (R = Y, Nd). J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 80, 31 (1989).
C.Y. Um and M.E. McHenry: Magnetic properties of Co-substituted Fe-Nb-Ta-Mo-B amorphous alloys. IEEE Trans. Magn. 40 (4), 2724 (2004).
B.H. Kear, B.C. Giessen, and M. Cohen: Rapidly Solidified Amorphous and Crystalline Alloys. (Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1982).
H.A. Davies, S. Steed, and H. Warlimont: Rapidly Quenched Metals, Vol. 1 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1985).
G.E. Fish: Research and development opportunities for rapidly solidified soft magnetic materials. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 3 (4), 457 (1989).
C.Y. Um, F. Johnson, M. Simone, J. Barrow, and M.E. McHenry: Effect of crystal fraction on hardness in FINEMET and NANOPERM nanocomposite alloys. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 10F504 (2005).
A. Hsiao, M.E. McHenry, M. Tamoria, and V.G. Harris: Magnetic properties and crystallization kinetics of a Mn-doped FINEMET precursor amorphous alloy. IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 2236 (2001).
B. Butvinova, P. Butvin, E. Illekova, P. Svec, G. Vlasak, D. Janickovic, and M. Kadlecikova: Impact of phosphorus for boron substitution on magnetic properties of magnetostrictive FINEMETS. Acta Electron. 13, 78 (2013).
L.K. Varga, E. Bakos, E. Kisdi-Koszd, E. Zsoldos, and L.F. Kiss: Time and temperature dependence of nanocrystalline structure formation in a Finemet-type amorphous alloy. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 133, 280 (1994).
D.T.H. Gam, N.D. The, N.H. Hai, N. Chau, N.Q. Hoa, and Md.S. Mahmud: Investigation of the nanocrystallization process and the magnetic properties of Finemet-like Fe73.5Si17.5B5Nb3Cu1 ribbons. J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52 (5), 1423 (2008).
A. Talaat, M. Ipatov, V. Zhukova, J.M. Blanco, M. Churyukanova, S. Kaloshkin, and A. Zhukov: Giant magneto-impedance effect in thin Finemet nanocrystalline microwires. Phys. Status Solidi C 11 (5), 1120 (2014).
Y. Yoshizawa and K. Yamauchi: Effects of magnetic field annealing on magnetic properties in ultrafine crystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloys. IEEE Trans. Magn. 25 (5), 3324 (1989).
S. Nakajimaa, S. Arakawaa, Y. Yamashitab, and M. Shiho: Fe-based nanocrystalline FINEMET cores for induction accelerators. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 331 (1), 318 (1993).
Y. Yoshizawa and K. Yamauchi: Fe-based soft magnetic alloys composed of ultrafine grain structure. Mater. Trans., JIM 31 (4), 307 (1990).
F.M.F. Rhen and S. Roy: Electrodeposited CoNiFeP soft-magnetic films for high frequency applications. IEEE Trans. Magn. 44 (11), 3917 (2008).
A.M. Leary, P.R. Ohodnicki, M.E. Mchenry, V. Keylin, J. Huth, and S.J. Kernion: Tunable anisotropy of Co-based nanocomposites for magnetic field sensing and inductor applications. US Patent 20140338793, 2014.
J.M. Silveyra, A.M. Leary, V. DeGeorge, S. Simizu, and M.E. McHenry: High-speed electric motors based on high performance novel soft magnets. J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17A319 (2014).
P.R. Ohodnicki, Y.L. Qina, M.E. McHenry, D.E. Laughlin, and V. Keylin: Transmission electron microscopy study of large field induced anisotropy (Co1−xFex)89Zr7B4 nanocomposite ribbons with dilute Fe-contents. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322 (3), 315 (2010).
P.R. Ohodnicki, J. Long, D.E. Laughlin, M.E. McHenry, V. Keylin, and J. Huth: Composition dependence of field induced anisotropy in ferromagnetic (Co,Fe)89Zr7B4 and (Co,Fe)88Zr7B4Cu1 amorphous and nanocrystalline ribbons. J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113909 (2008).
A. Chaturvedi, N. Laurita, A. Leary, M.H. Phan, M.E. McHenry, and H. Srikanth: Giant magnetoimpedance and field sensitivity in amorphous and nanocrystalline (Co1−xFex)89Zr7B4 (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1) ribbons. J. Appl. Phys. 109, 07B508 (2011).
S.J. Kernion, P.R. Ohodnicki, J. Grossmann, A. Leary, S. Shen, V. Keylin, J.F. Huth, J. Horwath, M.S. Lucas, and M.E. McHenry: Giant induced magnetic anisotropy in strain annealed Co-based nanocomposite alloys. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 102408 (2012).
N. Iturriza, M. Nazmunnahar, L. Dominguez, J. González, and J.J. del Val: Effect of the current annealing (without and with tensile stress) on the soft magnetic behaviour of Fe73.5-x(Co0.5Ni0.5)xSi13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloy ribbons (x = 2.5, 5 and 10). J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12 (6), 5071 (2012).
T. Kanada, Y. Kido, A. Kutsukake, T. Ikeda, and M. Enokizono: Magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials under tensile and compressive stress. Przegl. Elektrotech. (Electr. Rev.) 87 (9b), 93 (2011).
A. Benchabi, F. Alves, R. Barrué, J.C. Faugières, and J.F. Rialland: Magnetic properties and domain structures in stress-annealed FeZrB-(Cu)-(Nb) nanocrystalline ribbons. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 173 (2001).
Z. Turgut, M.Q. Huang, J.C. Horwath, R. Hinde, J. Kubicki, and R.T. Fingers: Effect of tensile stress and texture on magnetic properties of FeCo laminates. IEEE Trans. Magn. 40 (4), 2742 (2004).
G. Herzer, V. Budinsky, and C. Polak: Magnetic properties of FeCuNbSiB nanocrystallized by flash annealing under high tensile stress. Phys. Status Solidi B 248 (10), 2382 (2011).
M. Kurniawan, R.K. Roy, A.K. Panda, D.W. Greve, P. Ohodnicki, and M.E. McHenry: Temperature-dependent giant magnetoimpedance effect in amorphous soft magnets. J. Electron. Mater. 43 (12), 4576 (2014).
M. Kurniawan, R.K. Roy, A.K. Panda, D.W. Greve, P.R. Ohodnicki, Jr., and M.E. McHenry: Interplay of stress, temperature, and giant magnetoimpedance in amorphous soft magnets. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 222407 (2014).
A.G. Arribas, J. Gutiérrez, G.V. Kurlyandskaya, J.M. Barandiarán, A. Svalov, E. Fernández, A. Lasheras, D. de Cos, and I.B. Imaz: Sensor applications of soft magnetic materials based on magneto-impedance, magneto-elastic resonance and magneto-electricity. Sensors 14, 7602 (2014).
B. Slusarek and K. Zakrzewski: Magnetic properties of permanent magnets for magnetic sensors working in wide range of temperature. Przegl. Elektrotech. (Electr. Rev.) 88 (7b), 123 (2012).
M.E. Wieser, N. Holden, T.B. Coplen, J.K. Bohlke, M. Berglund, W.A. Brand, P. De Bievre, M. Groning, R.D. Loss, J. Meija, T. Hirata, T. Prohaska, R. Schoenberg, G. O’Connor, T. Walczyk, S. Yoneda, and X.K. Zhu: Atomic weights of the elements (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl. Chem. (IUPAC) 85 (5), 1047 (2011).
H.J. Emeléus: Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Vol. 11 (1968); p. 169.
S. Guicciardi, L. Silvestroni, G. Pezzotti, and D. Sciti: Depth-sensing indentation hardness characterization of HfC-based composites. Adv. Eng. Mater. 9 (5), 389 (2007).
V. Domnich, S. Reynaud, R.A. Haber, and M. Chowalla: Boron carbide: Structure, properties, and stability under stress. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94 (11), 3605 (2011).
F. Thevenot: A review on boron carbide. Key Eng. Mater. 56, 59 (1991).
K. Niihara, A. Nakahira, and T. Hirai: The effect of stoichiometry on mechanical properties of boron carbide. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67 (1), C13 (1984).
M. E. M and M. K acknowledge the support from the Army Research Laboratory (Contract Number: W911NF-14-1-0184) and M. E. M acknowledges the support from the Wright Patterson Air Force (Contract Number: FA8650-12-D-2225). This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
This author was an editor of this journal during the review and decision stage. For the JMR policy on review and publication of manuscripts authored by editors, please refer to http://www.mrs.org/jmr-editor-manuscripts/.
About this article
Cite this article
Kurniawan, M., Keylin, V. & McHenry, M.E. Effect of alloy substituents on soft magnetic properties and economics of Fe-based and Co-based alloys. Journal of Materials Research 30, 2231–2237 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2015.197