Phase transformation and microstructural development of zirconia/stainless steel bonded with a Ti/Ni/Ti interlayer for the potential application in solid oxide fuel cells

Abstract

The 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8Y-ZrO2) was bonded to stainless steel 316L at 900 °C for 1 h in a protective Ar atmosphere using an interlayer of Ti/Ni/Ti. Interfacial microstructures were characterized using both secondary electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), each with an attached energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). A layer sequence of σ-phase/TiFe2/TiFe + β-Ti/Ti2Fe was observed at the stainless steel 316L/Ti interface, whereas a layer sequence of Ti2Ni/Ti2Ni + TiNi/TiNi3 was found at the Ti/Ni interface. Furthermore, TiO and c-ZrO2−x formed at the Ti/8Y-ZrO2 interface. An acicular α-Ti and a fine ω-phase existed along with β-Ti in the residual Ti foil adjacent to the stainless steel 316L, but α-Ti and Ti2Ni were observed within β-Ti in the other residual Ti foil adjacent to the 8Y-ZrO2. The orientation relationships of the ω-phase and β-Ti were \({\left[ {1\bar 10} \right]_{{\rm{\beta - Ti}}}}//{\left[ {1\bar 210} \right]_{\rm{\omega}}}\) and (111)β-Ti//(0001)ω, respectively. The microstructural development was elucidated with the aid of Fe–Ti and Ni–Ti binary phase diagrams.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research was supported by the National Science Council (Taiwan) under Contract No. NSC98-2221-E-009-039-MY2.

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Correspondence to Chien-Cheng Lin.

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Wei, SH., Lin, CC. Phase transformation and microstructural development of zirconia/stainless steel bonded with a Ti/Ni/Ti interlayer for the potential application in solid oxide fuel cells. Journal of Materials Research 29, 923–934 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.65

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