Self-assembled nanostructures often exhibit unique properties that are distinct from those of bulk materials. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the assembly of nanorods and understanding some of the self-directing assembly mechanisms, particularly related to gold nanorods. Nonetheless, methods that can be scaled up to large areas for device-scale applications are yet to be established. This review describes various routes that are being actively pursued to achieve assembly of nanorods. Self-assembly methods that utilize external forces such as electric field or gravitational forces are reviewed. Additionally, self-assembly schemes using chemical and biomolecule linkers are presented. Other important routes, such as template assisted assembly, Langmuir-Blodgett, and nanorod assembly methods carried out in solution phase are also discussed. The latter includes recently reported approaches to produce superstructured particles through self-assembly. Solvent evaporation and drying can also strongly contribute to the assembly of nanostructures. The final section presents self-assembly routes that primarily exploit the drying kinetics of solvents.
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This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-1012850.
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Ramas amy, K., Gupta, A. Routes to self-assembly of nanorods. Journal of Materials Research 28, 1761–1776 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2013.26