Synthesis of TiO2@C core–shell nanostructures with various crystal structures by hydrothermal and postheat treatments

Abstract

TiO2@C core–shell nanostructures with various crystal structures of TiO2-B, anatase, and rutile were successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process and postheat treatments. As-synthesized precursor hydrogen titanate@carbonaceous nanoribbons transformed into TiO2-B@C nanoribbons at 400 °C and further transformed into anatase and rutile TiO2@C nanoribbons at 700 and 800 °C, respectively. The morphology of nanoribbons can be retained up to 800 °C. The transformation temperature (800 °C) from anatase to rutile phase is lower than that of TiO2 nanofibers without carbon layers and anatase TiO2@C nanoparticles. These results show that the carbon shell plays important roles in promoting the phase transition from anatase to rutile phase and protecting the nanoribbon-like morphology. The formation mechanism of the TiO2@C core–shell nanostructures with various crystal structures was discussed.

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Acknowledgment

This work was supported financially by the National Basic Research Program of China (2011CB808200) and the NSFC (10979001, 51025206, 51032001, 21073071, 11004075, 11004072, 11004138).

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Correspondence to Bingbing Liu.

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Li, Q., Liu, R., Liu, B. et al. Synthesis of TiO2@C core–shell nanostructures with various crystal structures by hydrothermal and postheat treatments. Journal of Materials Research 28, 449–453 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2012.281

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