Quantitative comparison between the degree of domain orientation and nonlinear properties of a PZT ceramic during electrical and mechanical loading

Abstract

The macroscopic electromechanical coupling properties of ferroelectric polycrystals are composed of linear and nonlinear contributions. The nonlinear contribution is typically associated with the extrinsic effects related to the creation and motion of domain walls. To quantitatively compare the macroscopic nonlinear properties of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic and the degree of domain orientation, in-situ neutron and high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments are performed and they provide the domain orientation density as a function of the external electric field and mechanical compression. Furthermore, the macroscopic strain under the application of external electrical and mechanical loads is measured and the nonlinear strain is calculated by means of the linear intrinsic piezoelectric effect and the linear intrinsic elasticity. The domain orientation density and the nonlinear strain show the same dependence on the external load. The scaling factor that relates to the two values is constant and is the same for both electrical and mechanical loadings.

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Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the support for this work from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under GR 2722/4-1, the U.S. National Science Foundation under award DMR-0746902, and the U.S. Department of the Army under award W911NF-09-1-0435. The Bragg Institute at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is acknowledged for provision of the neutron diffraction facilities through proposal number 1265. The assistance and cooperation of Dr. Vladmir Luzin at the Bragg Institute is also gratefully acknowledged. We also thank Dr. Doug Robinson at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for his invaluable assistance in making the beam campaign a success. Use of the APS was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

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Correspondence to Mie Marsilius.

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Marsilius, M., Granzow, T. & Jones, J.L. Quantitative comparison between the degree of domain orientation and nonlinear properties of a PZT ceramic during electrical and mechanical loading. Journal of Materials Research 26, 1126–1132 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2011.40

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