Optical properties of the black diamond produced by ion implantation


The optical properties of N-ion-implanted diamond are evaluated. The color of implanted layer became glossy black with metallic luster, which was further enhanced after postimplantation annealing at 600 °C for 2 h in vacuum or inert gas atmosphere. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the crystalline diamond became completely disordered after irradiation, but surprisingly the crystalline nature was restored to a mixture of well-defined diamond and diamond-like carbon after annealing. When it was annealed in air at the same temperature, however, the black color disappeared, indicating a removal of the disordered or graphitized layer by oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman analyses indicate that the black color of as-implanted diamond is associated mainly with the disordered carbon and modified band structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis shows that the implanted nitrogen atoms are in N–N and symmetrical 4N-vacancy bonding states, which are commonly found in the natural diamonds with yellow and brown tint.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

FIG. 1
FIG. 2
FIG. 3
FIG. 4
FIG. 5


  1. 1.

    B. Willems, K. De Corte, and G. Van Tendeloo: Why does polycrystalline natural diamond turn black after annealing. Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2486 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Y. Mita: Change of absorption spectra in type-Ib diamond with heavy neutron irradiation. Phys. Rev. B 53 (17), 11360 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    C. Chaiwong, L.D. Yu, K. Schinarakis, and T. Vilaithong: Optical property modification of ruby and sapphire by N-ion implantation. Surf. Coat. Tech. 196, 108 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    C.J. McHargue, G.C. Farlow, M.B. Lewis, J.M. Williams: Implantation of gases into sapphire. Nucl. Instrum. Methods, Phys. Res., Sect. B 19/20, 809 (1987).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M.A. Prelas, G. Popovici, and L.K. Bigelow: Handbook of Industrial Diamonds and Diamond Films (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), Ch.7, p. 232.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A.T. Collins: The color of diamond and How it may be changed? J. Gemmol. 27 (6), 341 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    J. Jagielski, N. Moncoffre, P. Delichere, and G. Marest: On the possibility of β-C3N4 carbon nitride synthesis by C and N implantation into Cu. J. Mater. Sci. 34, 2949 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    J.M. Ripalda, N. Diaz, E. Roman, L. Galan, I. Montero, A. Goldoni, A. Baraldi, S. Lizzit, G. Comelli, and G. Paolucci: Chemical shift resolved photoionization cross sections of amorphous carbon nitrides. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (10), 2132 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    P.M. Raole, S. Mukherjee, and P.I. John: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of plasma source nitrogen ion implantation in single crystalline natural diamond. Diam. Relat. Mater. 14, 482 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    J. Birrell, J. Gerbi, O. Auciello, J. M. Gibson, D. M. Gruen, and J.A. Carlisle: Bonding structure in nitrogen doped ultra-nanocrystalline diamond. J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5606 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    E.H. Lee, D.M. Hembree Jr., G.R. Rao, and L.K. Mansur: Raman scattering from ion-implanted diamond, graphite, and polymers. Phys. Rev. B 48 (21), 48 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    D.P. Hickey, K.S. Jones, and R.G. Elliman: Amorphization and graphitization of single-crystal diamond—A transmission electron microscopy study. Diam. Relat. Mater. 18, 1353 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    S. Prawer: Ion implantation into diamond and diamond films. Diam. Relat. Mater. 4, 862 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    M.H. Grimsditch and A.K. Ramdas: Brilouin scattering in diamond. Phys. Rev. B 11, 3139 (1975).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    X. Chen, J.P. Sullivan, T.A. Friedmann, and J.M. Gibson: Fluctuation microscopy studies of medium-range ordering in amorphous diamond-like carbon films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2823 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported through Proton Engineering Frontier Project from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jae-Won Park.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Park, JW., Kim, HJ. & Kim, YC. Optical properties of the black diamond produced by ion implantation. Journal of Materials Research 26, 1572–1576 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2011.201

Download citation