Flake-like Fe particles with controllable size and structures were achieved by modulating only the grinding speed; evidence provided by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, resistivity measurement system, and vector network analyzer disclosed the conductivity; and microwave electromagnetic (EM) and absorbing characteristics of the resultant products strongly depended on their morphology and structure. As grinding speed (V) increases from 0 to 250 revolutions per minute (rpm), the crystalline size decreases; meanwhile, both internal strain and diameter/thickness ratio increase and the conductivity reaches the maximal value at V = 140 rpm because of the improvement of the surface conductivity. Thin flake-like Fe particles facilely obtained at high grinding speed present higher values of the permittivity and permeability than spherical particles, which are ascribed to the multiple polarizations and the natural resonance. Thus, the aforementioned products with high permeability and low cost may be promising candidates for EM compatibility materials.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
S.S. Kim, S.T. Kim, Y.C. Yoon, and K.S. Lee: Magnetic, dielectric, and microwave absorbing properties of iron particles dispersed in rubber matrix in gigahertz frequencies. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 10F905 (2005).
C. Wang, R.T. Lv, Z.H. Huang, F.Y. Kang, and J.L. Gu: Synthesis and microwave absorbing properties of FeCo alloy particles/graphite nanoflake composites. J. Alloy. Comp. 509, 494 (2011).
P.H. Zhou, L.J. Deng, J.L. Xie, and D.F. Liang: Effects of particle morphology and crystal structure on the microwave properties of flake-like nanocrystalline Fe3Co2 particles. J. Alloy. Comp. 448, 303 (2008).
Y. Yang, C.L. Xu, Y.X. Xia, T. Wang, and F.S. Li: Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of FeCo nanoplates. J. Alloy. Comp. 493, 549 (2010).
L.J. Deng, P.H. Zhou, J.L. Xie, and L. Zhang: Characterization and microwave resonance in nanocrystalline FeCoNi flake composite. J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103916 (2007).
L. Qiao, F.S. Wen, J.Q. Wei, J.B. Wang, and F.S. Li: Microwave permeability spectra of flake-shaped FeCuNbSiB particle composites. J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063903 (2008).
J.H. Liu, T.Y. Ma, H. Tong, W. Luo, and M. Yan: Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of flaky Fe–Ti–Si–Al nanocrystalline composites. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 940 (2010).
X. Wang, R.Z. Gong, H. Luo, and Z.K. Feng: Microwave properties of surface modified Fe–Co–Zr alloy flakes with mechanochemically synthesized polystyrene. J. Alloy. Comp. 480, 761 (2009).
P.H. Zhou, Y.Q. Liu, and L.J. Deng: Effect of 3d transition metal substitution on microstructure and microwave absorption properties of FeSiB nanocrystalline flakes. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 794 (2010).
R.M. Walser and W. Kang: Fabrication and properties of microforged ferromagnetic nanoflakes. IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 1144 (1998).
X.S. Fang, L.F. Hu, C.H. Ye, and L.D. Zhang: One-dimensional inorganic semiconductor nanostructures: A new carrier for nanosensors. Pure Appl. Chem. 82, 2185 (2010).
G.X. Tong, Q. Hua, W.H. Wu, M.Y. Qin, L.C. Li, and P.J. Gong: Effect of liquid-solid ratio on the morphology, structure, conductivity, and electromagnetic characteristics of iron particles. Sci. China Ser. E Technol. Sci. 54, 484 (2011).
X.S. Fang, T.Y. Zhai, U.K. Gautam, L. Li, L.M. Wu, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg: ZnS nanostructures: From synthesis to applications. Prog. Mater. Sci. 56, 175 (2011).
G.X. Tong, J.G. Guan, Z.D. Xiao, F.Z. Mou, W. Wang, and G.Q. Yan: In situ generated H2 bubble-engaged assembly: A one-step approach for shape-controlled growth of Fe nanostructures. Chem. Mater. 20, 3535 (2008).
J.S. Benjamin: Dispersion strengthened super alloys by mechanical alloying. Metall. Trans. A 1, 2943 (1970).
Y.D. Kim, J.Y. Chung, J. Kim, and H. Jeon: Formation of nanocrystalline Fe-Co powders produced by mechanical alloying. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 291, 17 (2000).
G.X. Tong, W.H. Wu, Q. Hua, Y.Q. Miao, J.G. Guan, and H.S. Qian: Enhanced electromagnetic characteristics of carbon nanotubes/carbonyl iron powders complex absorbers in 2-18 GHz ranges. J. Alloy. Comp. 509, 451 (2011).
K. Fuchs: The conductivity of thin metallic films according to the electron theory of metals. Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 34, 100 (1938).
H. Hoffmann and J. Vancea: Critical assessment of thickness-dependent conductivity of thin metal films. Thin Solid Films 85, 147 (1981).
P.G. Klemens and M. Gell: Thermal conductivity of thermal-barrier coatings. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 245, 143 (1998).
G. Soyez, J.A. Eastman, L.J. Thompson, G.R. Bai, P.M. Baldo, A.W. McCormick, R.J. DiMelfi, A.A. Elmustafa, M.F. Tambwe, and D.S. Stone: Grain-size-dependent thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline yttriastabilized zirconia films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1155 (2000).
X.S. Fang, C.H. Ye, L.D. Zhang, and T. Xie: Twinning-mediated growth of Al2O3 nanobelts and their enhanced dielectric responses. Adv. Mater. 17, 1661 (2005).
X.S. Fang, C.H. Ye, L.D. Zhang, J.X. Zhang, J.W. Zhao, and P. Yan: Direct observation of the growth process of MgO nanoflowers by a simple chemical route. Small 1, 422 (2005).
G.X. Tong, J.G. Guan, X.A. Fan, W. Wang, and W. Li: Influence of pyrolysis temperature on the static magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of polycrystalline iron fibers. Acta Metall. Sinica 44, 867 (2008).
X.S. Fang, C.H. Ye, T. Xie, Z.Y. Wang, J.W. Zhao, and L.D. Zhang: Regular MgO nanoflowers and their enhanced dielectric responses. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013101 (2006).
H.R. Li: Introduction to Dielectric Physics (Chengdu University of Technology Press, Chengdu, 1990), p. 89.
J.R. Liu, M. Itoh, and K. Machida: Magnetic and electromagnetic wave absorption properties of a-Fe/Z-type Ba-ferrite nanocomposites. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 062503 (2006).
Z.W. Li, L. Chen, C.K. Ong, and Z. Yang: Static and dynamic magnetic properties of Co2Z barium ferrite nanoparticle composites. J. Mater. Sci. 40, 719 (2005).
S. Sugimoto, T. Maeda, D. Book, T. Kagotani, K. Inomata, M. Homma, H. Ota, Y. Houjou, and R. Sato: GHz microwave absorption of a fine a-Fe structure produced by the disproportionation of Sm2Fe17 in hydrogen. J. Alloy. Comp. 330, 301 (2002).
M.Z. Wu, Y.D. Zhang, S. Hui, T.D. Xiao, S.H. Ge, W.A. Hines, J.I. Budnick, and G.W. Taylor: Microwave magnetic properties of Co50/(SiO2)50 nanoparticles. Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4404 (2002).
J.G. Li, J.J. Huang, Y. Qin, and F. Ma: Magnetic and microwave properties of cobalt nanoplatelets. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138, 199 (2007).
P. Toneguzzo, G. Viau, O. Acher, F. Guillet, E. Bruneton, F. Fievet-Vincent, and F. Fievet: CoNi and FeCoNi fine particles prepared by the polyol process: Physico-chemical characterization and dynamic magnetic properties. J. Mater. Sci. 35, 3767 (2000).
D. Mercier, J.C.S. Lévy, G. Viau, F. Fiévet-Vincent, F. Fiévet, P. Toneguzzo, and O. Acher: Magnetic resonance in spherical Co-Ni and Fe-Co-Ni particles. Phys. Rev. B 62, 532 (2000).
S. Yoshida, S. Ando, Y. Shimada, K. Suzuki, K. Nomura, and K. Fukamichi: Crystal structure and microwave permeability of very thin Fe-Si-Al flakes produced by microforging. J. Appl. Phys. 93, 6659 (2003).
X. Tang, Q. Tian, B.Y. Zhao, and K. Hu: The microwave electromagnetic and absorption properties of some porous iron powders. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 445–446, 135 (2007).
X.A. Fan, J.G. Guan, W. Wang, and G.X. Tong: Morphology evolution, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of nano/submicrometre iron particles obtained at different reduced temperatures. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42, 075006 (2009).
This work was financially supported by Special Grand Science-Technology Project in Zhejiang Province (No. 2010C11053), Natural Scientific Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Grant Nos. Y4100022 and Y4090636), New Bud Talents Grant from Zhejiang Province, and Science and Technology Projects from Jinhua City (Grant No. 2010A12066).
About this article
Cite this article
Tong, G., Ma, J., Wu, W. et al. Grinding speed dependence of microstructure, conductivity, and microwave electromagnetic and absorbing characteristics of the flaked Fe particles. Journal of Materials Research 26, 682–688 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2011.18