We have demonstrated that the microstructure of thick pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) films can be controlled using physical vapor deposition by varying the film/substrate interface. PETN films were deposited on silicon and fused silica with and without a thin layer of sputtered aluminum to demonstrate the effects of the interface on subsequent film growth. Evolution of surface morphology, average density, and surface roughness as a function of film thickness were characterized using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Significant variations in density, pore size, and surface morphology were observed in films deposited on the different substrates. In addition, x-ray diffraction experiments showed that while films deposited on bare fused silica or silicon had only weak texturing, films deposited on a sputtered aluminum layer were highly oriented, with a strong (110) out-of-plane texture.
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The authors thank Michael P. Marquez and M. Barry Ritchey for their assistance with sample preparation and SEM imaging. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000. Sandia’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program and the Joint Department of Defense/Department of Energy Munitions Technology Development Program supported this work.
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Knepper, R., Tappan, A.S., Wixom, R.R. et al. Controlling the microstructure of vapor-deposited pentaerythritol tetranitrate films. Journal of Materials Research 26, 1605–1613 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2011.177