Direct-write, cryogenic electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) was performed by condensing methylcyclopentadienyl-platinum-trimethyl precursor onto a substrate at -155°C, exposing the condensate by a 15 keV electron beam, and desorbing unexposed precursor molecules by heating the substrate to room temperature. Dependencies of film thickness, microstructure, and surface morphology on electron beam flux and fluence, and Monte Carlo simulations of electron interactions with the condensate are used to construct a model of cryogenic EBID that is contrasted to existing models of conventional, room temperature EBID. It is shown that material grown from a cryogenic condensate exhibits one of three distinct surface morphologies: a nanoporous mesh with a high surface-to-volume ratio; a smooth, continuous film analogous to material typically grown by room temperature EBID; or a film with a high degree of surface roughness, analogous to that of the cryogenic condensate. The surface morphology can be controlled reproducibly by the electron fluence used for exposure.
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The authors thank Juntao Li, Miguel Rodriguez, and Ruud van den Boom for assistance with the cryogenic setup and useful discussions.
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Bresin, M., Thiel, B.L., Toth, M. et al. Focused electron beam-induced deposition at cryogenic temperatures. Journal of Materials Research 26, 357–364 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2010.59