Tin oxide (SnO2) nanotubes have been synthesized using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as removable templates. The entire synthesis takes place on the microscale on a micromachined hotplate, without the use of photolithography, taking advantage of the device’s built-in heater. Well-aligned multiwalled CNT forests were grown directly on microhotplates at 600 °C using a bimetallic iron/alumina composite catalyst and acetylene as precursor. Thin films of anhydrous SnO2 were then deposited onto the CNT forests through chemical vapor deposition of tin nitrate at 375 °C. The CNTs were then removed through a simple anneal process in air at temperatures above 450 °C, resulting in SnO2 nanotubes. Gas sensing measurements indicated a substantial improvement in sensitivity to trace concentrations of methanol from the SnO2 nanotubes in comparison with a SnO2 thin film. The synthesis technique is generic and may be used to create any metal oxide nanotube structure directly on microscale substrates.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
J. Suehle, R.E. Cavicchi, M. Gaitan, and S. Semancik: Tin oxide gas sensor fabricated using CMOS micro-hotplates and in-situ processing. IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14, 118 (1993).
P.B. Weisz: Effects of electronic change transfer between adsorbate and solid on chemisorption and catalysis. J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1531 (1953).
J.F. McAleer, P.T. Moseley, J.O.W. Noris, D.E. Williams, and B.C. Tofield: Tin dioxide gas sensors. Part 1: Aspects of the surface chemistry revealed by electrical conductance variations. J. Chem. Soc, Faraday Trans. 1 F 83, 1323 (1987).
P.T. Moseley: Solid state gas sensors. Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 223 (1997).
W.Y. Chung, J.W. Lim, D.D. Lee, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe: Thermal and gas-sensing properties of planar-type micro gas sensor. Sens. Actuators, B 64, 118 (2000).
H. Ogawa, M. Nishikawa, and A. Abe: Hall measurement studies and an electrical conduction model of tin oxide ultrafine particle films. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4448 (1982).
A. Kolmakov, Y. Chang, G. Cheng, and M. Moskovits: Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors. Adv. Mater. 15, 997 (2003).
P.M. Parthangal, R.E. Cavicchi, C.B. Montgomery, S. Turner, and M.R. Zachariah: Restructuring tungsten thin films into nanowires and hollow square cross-section microducts. J. Mater. Res. 20, 2889 (2005).
D. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Li, T. Tang, X. Liu, S. Han, B. Lei, and C. Zhou: Detection of NO2 down to ppb levels using individual and multiple In2O3 nanowire devices. Nano Lett. 4, 1919 (2004).
G.K. Mor, M.A. Carvalho, O.K. Varghese, M.V. Pishko, and C.A. Grimes: A room-temperature TiO2-nanotube hydrogen sensor able to self-clean photoactively from environmental contamination. J. Mater. Res. 19, 628 (2004).
P.M. Parthangal, R.E. Cavicchi, and M.R. Zachariah: A universal approach to electrically connecting nanowire arrays using nanoparticles-application to a novel gas sensor architecture. Nanotechnology 17, 3786 (2006).
E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Z. Pan, and Z.L. Wang: Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts. Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1869 (2002).
Y.X. Liang, Y.J. Chen, and T.H. Wang: Low-resistance gas sensors fabricated from multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with a thin tin oxide layer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 666 (2004).
Y. Zhang, J. Liu, R. He, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, and J. Zhu: Synthesis of alumina nanotubes using carbon nanotubes as templates. Chem. Phys. Lett. 360, 579 (2002).
Z. Sun, H. Yuan, Z. Liu, B. Han, and X. Zhang: A highly efficient chemical sensor material for H2S: Alpha-Fe2O3 nanotubes fabricated using carbon nanotube templates. Adv. Mater. 17, 2993 (2005).
C.N.R. Rao, B.C. Satishkumar, and A. Govindaraj: Zirconia nanotubes. Chem. Commun. (Comb.) 16, 1581 (1997).
B.C. Satishkumar, A. Govindaraj, E.M. Vogl, L. Basumallick, and C.N.R. Rao: Oxide nanotubes prepared using carbon nanotubes as templates. J. Mater. Res. 12, 604 (1997).
W.Q. Han and A. Zettl: Coating single-walled carbon nanotubes with tin oxide. Nano Lett. 3, 681 (2003).
L. Fu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, B. Han, J. Wang, P. Hu, L. Cao, and D. Zhu: Coating carbon nanotubes with rare earth oxide multiwalled nanotubes. Adv. Mater. 16, 350 (2004).
Y.S. Min, E.J. Bae, K.S. Jeong, Y.J. Cho, J.H. Lee, W.B. Choi, and G.S. Park: Ruthenium oxide nanotube arrays fabricated by atomic layer deposition using a carbon nanotube template. Adv. Mater. 15, 1019 (2003).
A. Gomathi, S.R.C. Vivekchand, A. Govindaraj, and C.N.R. Rao: Chemically bonded ceramic oxide coatings on carbon nanotubes and inorganic nanowires. Adv. Mater. 17, 2757 (2005).
N.D. Hoa, N. Van Quy, H. Song, Y. Kang, Y. Cho, and D. Kim: Tin oxide nanotube structures synthesized on a template of single-walled carbon nanotubes. J. Cryst. Growth 311, 657 (2009).
Y. Jia, L. He, Z. Guo, X. Chen, F. Meng, T. Luo, M. Li, and J. Liu: Preparation of porous tin oxide nanotubes using carbon nanotubes as templates and their gas-sensing properties. J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (22), 9581 (2009).
P.M. Parthangal, R.E. Cavicchi, and M.R. Zachariah: A generic process of growing aligned carbon nanotube arrays on metals and metal alloys. Nanotechnology 18, 185605 (2007).
R.E. Cavicchi, S. Semancik, F. DiMeo, and C.J. Taylor: Featured article: Use of microhotplates in the controlled growth characterization of metal oxides for chemical sensing. J. Electroceram. 9, 155 (2003).
L. Gajdosik: The derivation of the electrical conductance/ concentration dependency for SnO2 gas sensor for ethanol. Sens. Actuators, B 81, 347 (2002).
A. Kolmakov: Some recent trends in the fabrication, functionalisa-tion and characterisation of metal oxide nanowire gas sensors. Int. J. Nanotechnol. 5(4/5), 450 (2008).
D.P. Woodruff and T.A. Delchar: Modern Techniques of Surface Science, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994), p. 108.
W.K. Choi, H.J. Jung, and S-K.J. Koh: Chemical shifts and optical properties of tin oxide films grown by a reactive ion-assisted deposition. J. Vac. Sci. Technol, A 14, 359 (1996).
K.D. Childs, B.A. Carlson, L.A. LaVanier, J.F. Moulder, D.F. Paul, W.F. Stickle, and D.G. Watson: Handbook of Auger Electron Spectroscopy, 3rd ed., edited by C. Hedberg (Physical Electronics, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN, 1995), p. 404.
T. Sahma, L. Madler, A. Gurlo, N. Barsan, S.E. Pratsinis, and U. Weimar: Flame spray synthesis of tin dioxide nanoparticles for gas sensing. Sens. Actuators, B 98, 148 (2004).
C. Nayral, E. Viala, P. Fau, F. Senocq, J.C. Jumas, and A. Maisonnat: Synthesis of tin and tin oxide nanoparticles of low size dispersity for application in gas sensing. Chemistry 6, 4082 (2000).
W. Lei, D. Jun, C.H. Mao, Y.H. Xiong, and Z.M. Yang: Enhancement of hydrogen gas-sensing properties of Sn02-based thin film with Ni surface modification, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments, Vol. 5, edited by J.M. Qi and J.P. Cui (International Academic Publishers LTD, Hong Kong, China, 2005), p. 531.
S. Chakraborty, A. Sen, and H.S. Maiti: Selective detection of methane and butane by temperature modulation in iron doped tin oxide sensors. Sens. Actuators, B 115, 610 (2006).
G.G. Mandayo, E. Castano, F.J. Gracia, A. Cirera, A. Cornet, and J.R. Morante: Enhancement of hydrogen gas-sensing properties of SnO2-based thin film with Ni surface modification. Sens. Actuators, B 95, 90 (2003).
R.S. Niranjan, S.R. Sainkar, K Vijayamohanan, and I.S. Mulla: Ruthenium: Tin oxide thin film as a highly selective hydrocarbon sensor. Sens. Actuators, B 82, 82 (2002).
J. Tiffany, R.E. Cavicchi, and S. Semancik: Microarray study of temperature dependent sensitivity and selectivity of metal/oxide sensing interfaces, in Advanced Environmental and Chemical Sensing Technology, Vol. 4205, edited by T. VoDinh and S. Buttgenbach and (SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 2001), p. 240.
J.C. Kim, H.K Jun, J.S. Huh, and D.D. Lee: Tin oxide-based methane gas sensor promoted by alumina-supported Pd catalyst. Sens. Actuators, B 45, 271 (1997).
C. Cane, I. Gracia, A. Gotz, L. Fonseca, E. Lora-Tamayo, M.C. Horrillo, I. Sayago, J.I. Robla, J. Rodrigo, and J. Gutierrez: Detection of gases with arrays of micromachined tin oxide gas sensors. Sens. Actuators, B 65, 244 (2000).
B.K. Dable, K.S. Booksh, R.E. Cavicchi, and S. Semancik: Calibration of microhotplate conductometric gas sensors by non-linear multivariate regression methods. Sens. Actuators, B 101, 284 (2004).
R.E. Cavicchi, J.S. Suehle, K.G. Kreider, M. Gaitan, and P. Chaparala: Fast temperature programmed sensing for micro-hotplate gas sensors. IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 286 (1995).
About this article
Cite this article
Parthangal, P., Cavicchi, R.E., Meier, D.C. et al. Direct synthesis of tin oxide nanotubes on microhotplates using carbon nanotubes as templates. Journal of Materials Research 26, 430–436 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2010.27