Effects of thermal annealing on the microstructural properties of the lower region in ZnO thin films grown on n-Si (001) substrates

Abstract

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, selected-area electron-diffraction patterns, high-resolution TEM images, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy line scans for the ZnO/n-Si (001) heterostructures annealed at 900 °C showed that stacking faults and amorphous layers were formed in the lower region of the ZnO films. The stacking faults existing in the lower region of the ZnO columnar grains originated from the formation of zinc vacancy layers caused by the thermal treatment, resulting in the existence of a tensile strain. The formation of the amorphous layer in the ZnO film was attributed to the accumulation of zinc vacancy layers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

FIG. 1
FIG. 2
FIG. 3
FIG. 4

References

  1. 1

    R.F. Service: Will UV lasers beat the blues? Science 276, 895 1997

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Z.W. Pan, Z.R. Dai Z.L. Wang: Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides. Science 291, 1947 2001

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    F. Oba, H. Ohta, Y. Sato, H. Hosono, T. Yamamoto Y. Ikuhara: Atomic structure of [0001]-tilt grain boundaries in ZnO: A high-resolution TEM study of fiber-textured thin films. Phys. Rev. B 70, 125415 2004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S.F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma M. Kawasaki: Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO. Nat. Mater. 4, 42 2005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    H. Kim, C.M. Gilmore, J.S. Jorwitz, A. Pigue, H. Murafa, G.P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z.H. Kafafi D.B. Chrisey: Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 259 2000

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    D.M. Bagnall, Y. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M.Y. Shen T. Goto: Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230 1997

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Z.K. Tang, G.K.L. Wong, P. Tu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma Y. Segawa: Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270 1998

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    T. Soki, Y. Hatanaka D.C. Look: ZnO diode fabricated by excimer-laser doping. Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3257 2000

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    S-K. Kim, S-Y. Jeong C-R. Cho: Structural reconstruction of hexagonal to cubic ZnO films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by annealing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 562 2003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    H.S. Lee, J.Y. Lee, T.W. Kim M.D. Kim: Effect of thermal annealing on the microstructural and optical properties of vertically stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots embedded in modulation-doped heterostructures. J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6354 2003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    B. Yaglioglu, H-Y. Yeom D.C. Paine: Crystallization of amorphous In2O3–10 wt % ZnO thin films annealed in air. Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261908 2005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    K. Ogata, T. Kawanishi, K. Maajima, K. Sakurai, Sz. Fujita Sg. Fujita: ZnO growth using homoepitaxial technique on sapphire and Si substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. J. Cryst. Growth 237, 553 2002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    K. Ogata, K. Sakurai, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita K. Matsushige: Effects of thermal annealing of ZnO layers grown by MBE. J. Cryst. Growth 214/215, 312 2000

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Z.B. Fang, Z.J. Yan, Y.S. Tan, X.Q. Liu Y.Y. Wang: Influence of post-annealing treatment on the structure properties of ZnO films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 241, 303 2005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    V. Gupta A. Mansingh: Influence of postdeposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of sputtered zinc oxide film. J. Appl. Phys. 80, 1063 1996

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Z.Q. Chen, S. Yamamoto, M. Maekawa, A. Kawasuso, X.L. Yuan T. Sekiguchi: Postgrowth annealing of defects in ZnO studied by positron annihilation, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, cathodoluminescence, and Hall measurements. J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4807 2003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    J.W. Shin, J.Y. Lee, Y.S. No, T.W. Kim W.K. Choi: Correlation between the atomic structures and the misorientation angles of [0001]-tilt grain boundaries at triple junctions in ZnO thin films grown on Si substrates. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101904 2006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    J.W. Shin, J.Y. Lee, Y.S. No, J.H. Jung, T.W. Kim W.K. Choi: Atomic arrangement variations of [0001]-tilt grain boundaries in ZnO thin films grown on p-Si substrates due to thermal treatment. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181907 2007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Y.S. Jung, O. Kononenko, J.S. Kim W.K. Choi: Two-dimensional growth of ZnO epitaxial films on c-Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) substrates with optimized growth temperature and low-temperature buffer layer by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. J. Cryst. Growth 274, 418 2005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    D. Gerthsen, D. Litvinov, Th. Gruber, C. Kirchner A. Waag: Origin and consequences of a high stacking fault density in epitaxial ZnO layers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3972 2002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    H.P. Sun, X.Q. Pan, X.L. Du, Z.X. Mei, Z.Q. Zeng Q.K. Xue: Microstructure and crystal defects in epitaxial ZnO film grown on Ga modified 0001 sapphire surface. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4385 2004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    S.O. Kucheyev, J.S. Williams, C. Jagadish, J. Zou, G. Li A.I. Titov: Effect of ion species on the accumulation of ion-beam damage in GaN. Phys. Rev. B 64, 035202 2001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    S.O. Kucheyev, J.S. Williams, J. Zou, G. Li, C. Jagadish A.I. Titov: Effect of ion species on implantation-produced disorder in GaN at liquid-nitrogen temperature. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 190, 782 2002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    H. Ryoken, I. Sakaguchi, N. Ohashi, T. Sekiguchi, S. Hishita H. Haneda: Non-equilibrium defects in aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown with a pulsed laser deposition method. J. Mater. Res. 20, 2866 2005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    A.I. Titov S.O. Kucheyev: Ion beam induced amorphous–crystalline phase transition in Si: Quantitative approach. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 168, 375 2000

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MOST) (No. R0A-2007-000-20044-0). This research was supported by a Grant (Code No. 07K1501-01210) from “Center for Nanostructured Materials Technology” under “21st Century Frontier R&D Programs” of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Korea.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to T.W. Kim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yuk, J., Lee, J., Kim, T. et al. Effects of thermal annealing on the microstructural properties of the lower region in ZnO thin films grown on n-Si (001) substrates. Journal of Materials Research 23, 1082–1086 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2008.0141

Download citation