By introducing high precision sample alignment technique, repeatability of incident angle to the sample surface for x-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurement is achieved to be within 0.3 arcsec. As a result, film thickness and density are possible to be measured repeatability within 0.03% and density within 0.26%. This accuracy realized to detect very small change of thermal expansion of thin films. The coefficient of thermal expansions (CTE) for porous low-k films deposited by CVD method were measured up to 400°C. The obtained values are in the range from 40 to 80 x10-6 K-1 and they are very large compare to that of copper (16-20 x10-6 K-1).
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Omote, K., Ito, Y. Thermal Expansion of Low Dielectric Constant Thin Films by High-Resolution X-Ray Reflectivity. MRS Online Proceedings Library 875, 82 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-875-O8.2