The effort to produce an instrument that can achieve high spatial resolution, nondestructive, surface and sub-surface imaging for a variety of materials comes with many challenges. One approach, magnetic resonance-force microscopy (MRFM), lies at the nexus of two sensitive technologies: magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MFM uses a magnetic tip in a standard atomic force microscope (AFM) to obtain magnetic information about a surface. A difference in the magnetic moments of surface atoms in different regions on the surface varies the cantilever resonance. MRI, on the other hand, uses the spin states of magnetically biased atoms to differentiate between chemical species.
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Lagally, D.P., Karbassi, A., Wang, Y. et al. Atomic Force Microscopy Probe with Integrated Loop and Shielded Leads for Micromagnetic Sensing. MRS Online Proceedings Library 872, 189 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-872-J18.9