We report an unusual circuit failure mode induced by short-lived extrusions observed during DC and AC electromigration (EM) tests of quarter-micron damascene copper interconnects. This novel “soft” failure mode consists of extrusions forming, then self-dissolving before the traditional permanent void or extrusion failure. These failures shorten the lifetime significantly and bring new challenges to reliability tests. Two self-dissolution mechanisms under DC test conditions are discussed and extrusion shape evolution is modeled assuming both capillary and electron wind forces are present. Our model confirms that the electrical stress will accelerate the shape evolution process.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
J. R. Lloyd, “Electromigration in Integrated Circuit Conductors,” J. Phys. D: 32 (1999) pp.109 – 118.
M. H. Tsai, W. J. Tsai, S. L. Shue, C. H. Yu, and M. S. Liang, “Reliability of Dual Damascene Cu Metallization,” Interconnect Technology Conference, 2000. Proceedings of the IEEE 2000, pp. 214 – 216.
Y. Kuo and S. Lee, “Room-temperature Copper Etching Based on a Plasma-Copper Reaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 78 (7) 2001, pp.1002–1004
C. K. Hu, R. Rosenberg and K. L. Lee, “Electromigration Path in Cu Thin-film Lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 74, 2945 (1999)
M. W. Lane, E. G. Liniger and J. R. Lloyd, “Relationship between Interfacial Adhesion and Electromigration in Cu Metallization,” J. Appl. Phys., 93, 1417 (2003).
J.-W. Kim, W.-S. Song, S.-Y. Kim, H.-S. Kim, H.-G. Jeon and C.-B. Lim, “Characterization of Cu Extrusion Failure Mode in Dual-Damascene Cu/low-k Interconnects under Electromigration Reliability Test,” Proc. of 8th IPFA 2001, Singapore, pp. 175–177.
K. D. Lee, X. Lu, E. T. Ogawa, H. Matsuhashi, and P. S. Ho, “Electromigration Study of Cu/low k Dual-damascene Interconnects,” Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings, 2002., pp.322 – 326
C. Ryu, K.W. Kwon, Alvin L. S. Loke, H. Lee, T. Nogami, V. M. Dubin, R. A. Kavari, G. W. Ray and S. S. Wong, “Microstructure and Reliability of Copper Interconnects”, IEEE Transcation on Electron Devices, Vol. 46 (6), 1113 (1999).
K. N. Tu, “Recent Advances on Electromigration in Very-Large-Scale-Integration of Interconnects,” J. Appl. Phys. Vol 94 (9)., 5451 (2003).
J. H. Choy and K. L. Kavanagh, “Effects of Capillary Forces on Copper/Dielectric Interfacial Void Evolution,” Appl. Phys. Letts., Vol. 84, 2004, pp. 5201–5203.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, Y., Choy, J., Chapman, G.H. et al. Characterization of Temporary Extrusion Failures in Quarter-Micron Copper Interconnects. MRS Online Proceedings Library 863, B9.7 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-863-B9.7