A Study of Impact Reliability of Lead-free BGA Balls on Au/Electrolytic Ni/Cu Bond Pad


The most frequent failure of wireless, handheld, and movable consumer electronic products is an accidental drop to the ground. The impact may cause interfacial fracture of wire-bonds or solder joints between a Si chip and its packaging module. Existing metrologies, such as ball shear, and pull test cannot well represent the shock reliability of the package. In this study, a micro-impact machine is utilized to test the impact reliability of three kinds of lead-free solders: 99Sn1Ag, 98.5Sn1Ag0.5Cu and 97.5Sn1Ag0.5Cu1In (hereafter called Sn1Ag, Sn1Ag0.5Cu, and Sn1Ag0.5Cu1In). The effect of thermal aging on the impact toughness is also evaluated in this study. We find a ductile-to-brittle transition in SnAg (Cu) solder joints after thermal aging. The impact toughness is enhanced by the thermal aging. This is a combination effect of the growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) at the interface provided strong bonding, and the softening of the solder bulk during the thermal aging absorbed more energy during plastic deformation.

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Correspondence to Shengquan Ou.

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Ou, S., Xu, Y., Tu, K.N. et al. A Study of Impact Reliability of Lead-free BGA Balls on Au/Electrolytic Ni/Cu Bond Pad. MRS Online Proceedings Library 863, B10.5 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-863-B10.5

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