Kinetics of Linear Defect Formation in Gallia-Doped Rutile


The diffusion of Ga2O3 into the surface of single crystal [001] rutile leads to the insertion of ß-gallia subunits along {210} planes of the parent rutile structure. These linear defects introduce hexagonally shaped tunnels, approximately 2.5 Å in diameter, normal to the [001] surface. Because these tunnels may serve as highly reactive sites for the attachment of macromolecules, we are exploring the application of these linear defects for creating nanostructures. The current work investigates the kinetics of defect formation and the factors that affect defect periodicity and orientation. Gallium oxide was applied to the surfaces of [001]-oriented TiO2 single-crystal substrates via a sol-gel spin-coating process using a gallium-containing precursor. Thermal treatments were systematically varied to obtain different defect surface structures. Defect orientation and the surface concentration of rows of defects were characterized via tapping mode atomic force microscopy.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    S. Kamiya and R.J.D. Tilley, J. Solid State Chem., 22 205–16 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    L.A. Bursill and G.G. Stone, J. Solid State Chem., 38[2] 149–57 (1981).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    A. Kahn, V. Agafonov, D. Michel, and M. Perez Y Jorba, J. Solid State Chem., 65 377–82 (1986).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    D.J. Lloyd, I.E. Grey, and L.A. Bursill, Acta Cryst., B32 1756–61 (1976).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    L.A. Bursill, Acta Cyst., A 35 449–58 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    G.G. Stone and L.A. Bursill, Philos. Mag., 35 1397–412 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    R.M. Gibb and J.S. Anderson, J. Solid State Chem., 5 212–25 (1972).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    D.D. Edwards, T.O. Mason, W. Sinkler, M. L.D., K.R. Poeppelmeier, Z. Hu, and J.D. Jorgensen, J. Solid State Chem., 150 [2] 294–304 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    H.G. Hansma and D.E. Lane, Biophysical Journal, 70[4] 1933–9 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    G.L. Eichhorn and Y.A. Shin, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 90[26] 7323–8 (1968).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    D. Pastre, O. Pietrement, S. Fusil, F. Landousy, J. Jeusset, M. David, L. Hamon, E. Cam, and A. Zozime, Biophysical Journal, 85[4] 2507–18 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Y. Li, A. Trinchi, W. Wlodarski, K. Galatsis, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, Sensors and Actuators, B 93 431–4 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    E. Iguchi and R.J.D. Tilley, J. Crys. Growth, 58 601–10 (1982).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nathan Empie.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Empie, N., Edwards, D. Kinetics of Linear Defect Formation in Gallia-Doped Rutile. MRS Online Proceedings Library 849, 1–6 (2004).

Download citation