Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography

Abstract

Two dimensional photonic crystals of titanium dioxide is expected to have many advantage compared with photonic crystals of semiconductors, e.g., silicon and GaAs. For example, low optical loss in the near infrared region used for optical communication, low thermal expansion, and its refractive index which is close to that for optical fiber are attractive advantages. However, it is difficult to create micro-nano structure in titanium dioxide because micro-fabrication technique for semiconductor is not available for titanium dioxide. As the first step we calculated photonic band gap of titanium dioxide rod-slab on SiO2. Also, band gap percent against thickness of the rod-slab was examined. Finally, we confirmed the most suitable structure of 2D photonic crystals. Deep x-ray lithography technique was employed for create a very deep and precise template of PMMA. Then, liquid-phase deposition was used to faithfully deposit a tightly packed layer of titanium oxide onto the template. Finally, the template is selectively removed to obtain a photonic nano-structure. We also calculate photonic band gap on the 3D-structure of TiO2. A template for the most appropriate structure was fabricated by the method proposed by Yablonovitch. By using of the same method, it was successful to obtain 3D structure of TiO2. Refractive index of obtained TiO2 followed by heating at 700°C was determined to 2.5 which is close to that for anatase phase.

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Correspondence to Koichi Awazu.

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Awazu, K., Fujimaki, M., Wang, X. et al. Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic structure of titanium dioxide with sub-micrometer resolution by deep x-ray lithography. MRS Online Proceedings Library 820, 300–305 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-820-R4.5

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