Surface Oriented Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes

Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate the self assembled growth of nanotubes along the surface of (100), (110) and (111) silicon wafers using thermal CVD. Iron nanoparticles, 10 nm in diameter, were used as the catalyst. Carbon nanotubes were grown in a methane atmosphere at 1000oC. SEM and AFM characterization revealed single wall carbon nanotubes, about 10 nm in diameter and up to 10 im in length, growing along the <111> direction of the silicon wafer. The mechanism of growth of nanotubes is similar to that of molecular epitaxy which occurs due to the lattice matching of the silicon and iron crystal lattices forming self aligned silicides at high temperature which help orient the nanotubes. This process may enable the integration of nanotubes with CMOS processing technology.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Iijima, S. Nature (London) 1991, 354, 56.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    W. Z. Li, S. S. Xie, L. X. Qian, B. H. Chang, B. S. Zou, W. Y. Zou, R. A. Zhao, G. Wang, Science 274, 1701 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Z. F. Ren, Z. P. Huang, J. W. Xu, J. H. Wang, P. Bush, M. P. Siegal, P. N. Provencio, Science 282, 1105 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    R. R. Schlittler, J. W. Seo, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Durkan, M. S. M. Saifullah, M. E. Welland, Science 292, 1136 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    S. Fan, M. G. Chapline, N. R. Franklin, T. W. Tombler, A. M. Cassell, H. Dai, Science 283, 512 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    W. D. Zhang, J. T. L. Thong, W. C. Tjiu, L. M. Gan, Diamond and Related Materials 11, 1638 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    M. Bockrath, D. H. Cobden, P. L. McEuen, N. G. Chopra, A. Zettl, A. Thess, R. E. Smalley, Science 275, 1922 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    X. P. Tang, A. Kleinhammes, H. Shimoda, L. Fleming, K. Y. Bennoune, S. Sinha, C. Bower, O. Zhou, Y. Wu, Science 288, 492 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    M. Burghard et al. Science 284, 1508 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    R. E. Smalley et al. Science 297, 593 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    A. Guiseppi-Elie, C. Lei, R. H. Baughman, Nanotechnology 13, 559 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    P. Avouris, Chemical Physics 281, 429 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    E. T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T. W. Chou, Composite Science and Technology 61, 1899 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    J. P. Lou, Journal of the Physics and Chemistry of Solids 58, 1649 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    C. Q. Ru, Physical Review B 62, 9973 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    E. Hernandez, C. Goze, P. Bernier, A. Rubio, Physical Review Letters 80, 4502 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Y. Zhang, A. Chang, J. Cao, Q. Wang, W. Kim, Y. Li, N. Morris, E. Yenilmez, J. Kong, H. Dai, Applied Physics Letters 79, 3155 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    L. Delzeit, C. V. Nguyen, R. M. Stevens, J. Han, M. Meyyappan, Nanotechnology 13, 280 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    J. Kong, A. M. Cassell, H. Dai, Chemical Physical Letters 292, 567 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Y. Y. Wei, G. Eres, Nanotechnology 11, 61 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    D. Sarangi, A. Karimi, Nanotechnology 14, 109 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    C. H. Kiang, Journal of Physical Chemistry A 104, 2454 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    G. Wang et al. Nanotechnology 13, L1 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    N. A. Kiselev, A. P. Moravsky, A. B. Ormont, D. N. Zhakarov, Carbon 37, 1093 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    P. D. Kichambare, D. Qian, E. C. Dickey, C. A. Grimes, Carbon 40, 1903 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Y. Bruyunseraede et al. Physical Review Letters 76, 479 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    R. Krupke, F. Hennrich, H. P. Lohneysen, M. M. Kappes, Science 301, 344 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    K. Yamamoto, S. Akita, Y. Nakayama, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 35, L917 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    P. A. Williams, S. J. Papadakis, M. R. Falvo, A. M. Patel, M. Sinclair, A. Seeger, A. Helser, R. M. Taylor II, S. Washburn, R. Superfine, Applied Physics Letters 80, 2574 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    H. Dai, J. Kong, C. Zhou, N. Franklin, T. Tombler, A. Cassell, S. Fan, M. Chapline, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 103, 11246 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Y. Li, W. Kim, Y. Zhang, M. Rolandi, D. Wang, H. Dai, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 105, 11424 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    C. L. Cheung, A. Kurtz, H. Park, C. M. Lieber, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 106, 2429 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    H. Reuther, M. Dobler, Applied Physics Letters 69, 3176 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Y. Gao, S. P. Wong, W. Y. Cheung, Applied Physics Letters 83, 638 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    In Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology, edited by W. A. Goddard III, D. W. Brenner, S. E. Lyshevski, G. J. Iafrate (CRC Press, New York, 2003), p. 19

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank Mr. Matthew Lamm and Dr. Darrin J. Pochan for their help with AFM imaging. We also thank Dr. Ismat Shah for the iron nanoparticle samples. We acknowledge the partial funding provided by National Science Foundation Grant: CCR: 0304218.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kousik Sivakumar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sivakumar, K., Panchapakesan, B. Surface Oriented Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes. MRS Online Proceedings Library 818, 124–129 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-818-M11.5.1

Download citation