Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Microchannels

Abstract

We have developed a fabrication procedure for growing photonic crystals in the lithographic defined microchannels, which enables easy integration with other planar optical components. This technique is based on the directed evaporation induced self-assembly of nanoparticles in the microchannels. Substrates with pre-patterned microchannels (30-100 μm wide) were dipped into solution of nanoparticles for several days. By controlling the evaporation rate, the meniscus contacting the microchannels will undergo evaporation-induced self-assembly. The capillary forces cause nanospheres to crystallize within the microchannels forming colloidal photonic crystals in the microchannels. Two types of colloidal particles, polystyrene and silica, have been employed to fabricate colloidal photonic crystals in the microchannels. Both types of colloidal particles were found to form large-area well-ordered colloidal single crystals in the microchannels. The optical reflection spectra from the (111) surfaces of the colloidal crystals formed by various sizes of nanoparticles have been measured. And the measured reflection peaks agree with the photonic bandgap calculated by the plane wave expansion method.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett., 58, 2059 (1987)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    R. Maede, A.M. Rappe, K.D. Rommer, J.D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B, 48, 8434 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Photonic Crystals: The Road from Theory to Practice (Kluwer, Boston, 2002).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Y. Xia, B. Gates, Y. Yin, Y. Lu, Adv. Mater., 12, 693 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    C. Lopez, Adv. Mater., 15, 1679 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    P. Jiang, J.F. Bertone, K.S. Hwang, V.L. Colvin, Chem. Mater., 11, 2132. (1999)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    S.M. Yang, G.A. Ozin, Chem. Commun., 2507 (2000).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    G.A. Ozin, S.M. Yang, Adv. Funct. Mater., 11, 95 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    S.M. Yang, H. Miguez, G. Ozin, Adv. Func. Mater., 12, 425 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    S.R. Quake, A. Scherer, A. Science, 290, 1536 (2000).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    M.A. Unger, H.P. Chou, T. Thorsen, A. Scherer, S.R. Quake, Science, 288, 113 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    T. Thorsen, S.J. Maerkl, S.R. Quake, Science, 298, 580 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Software was downloaded from http://jdj.mit.edu/mpb/download.html

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported in part by National Science Council, Taiwan, under Contract 92-2113-M-001-036.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kuo, CW., Hsieh, HM., Ting, JC. et al. Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Microchannels. MRS Online Proceedings Library 817, 159–164 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-817-L6.2

Download citation