Our experiments show boron-interstitial cluster dissolution is reduced during oxidation, a behavior not predicted by the current models. Both our experiments and others on the time dependence indicate the reactivation is coming from more than one cluster. Since oxidation induced interstitial injection reduces reactivation, one of the significant clusters has to release an interstitial release during dissolution. Recent ab-initio calculations provide a qualitatively different B clustering model, with two significant cluster species. Based on these energetics, we have developed a new physically based model that for the first time accounts for the experimentally observed cluster dissolution time and ambient dependence.
Anomalous B diffusion behavior is also observed in an investigation of Ge influence on B diffusion. Silicon wafers were subjected to a Si preamorphization implant (PAI), followed by Ge and B implants contained within the existing amorphous layer. The control sample received only Si PAI and B implant. Upon annealing, the peak of the B profile shifts towards the surface and increases in magnitude, exhibiting uphill diffusion. The control samples subjected to the same thermal processing exhibit TED, but no uphill diffusion behavior. This is consistent with the model of B diffusion in Si1−xGex, accounting for trapping of B at Ge sites through formation of GeB complex.
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Radic, L., Lilak, A.D. & Law, M.E. Modeling B clustering in Si and SiGe. MRS Online Proceedings Library 810, 368–373 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-810-C8.14