Silicidation of small features of various geometries and sizes using Ni-silicide was studied. Effects of dopants, surface preparation and silicidation parameters on silicide morphology were investigated. It was found that Ni silicide thickness and quality of the silicide/silicon interface (presence of NiSi2 pyramids) are dependent on the area dimensions and geometry. NiSi formed on narrow lines is thicker compared to wide areas. We found that pyramids of epitaxial NiSi2 protruding into the Si substrate are formed during the silicidation of undoped, boron-doped and BF2-doped active areas. The presence of pyramids was not observed on As-doped silicon. Rough interface due to the pyramids could be the reason for a more pronounced linewidth dependence of leakage current in the case of p+/n diodes. A higher density of pyramids was found on narrow lines (below 0.2μm) and particularly islands structures. No pyramids were found when a Ge preamorphisation implant was used.
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Chamirian, O., Lauwers, A., Kittl, J.A. et al. Ni Silicide Morphology On Small Features. MRS Online Proceedings Library 810, 219–224 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-810-C4.4