Gallium-doped zinc oxide films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature as a function of the substrate-target distance. The best results were obtained for a distance of 10 cm, where a resistivity as low as 2.7×10-4 Ωcm, a Hall mobility of 18 cm2/Vs and a carrier concentration of 1.3×1021 cm-3 were achieved. The films are polycrystalline presenting a strong crystallographic c-axis orientation (002) perpendicular to the substrate. The films present an overall transmittance in the visible part of the spectra of about 85 %, in average. The low resistivity, accomplished with a high growth rate deposited at RT, enables the deposition of these films onto polymeric substrates for flexible applications.
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Fortunato, E., Assunção, V., Marques, A. et al. Characterization of Transparent and Conductive ZnO:Ga Thin Films Produced by Rf Sputtering at Room Temperature. MRS Online Proceedings Library 763, 519 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-763-B5.19