Cation Ordering in Substituted LiMn2O4 Spinels


In order to overcome the capacity fading of LiMn2O4 in lithium batteries, various substitutions for Mn have been proposed. The structural implications of substitution in LiMn2-xMxO4 with x = 0.5, i.e. with exactly 1/4 octahedral (16d-site) cations replaced, are investigated here. For this stoichiometry, cationic ordering was known previously for M = Mg and Zn, resulting in a superstructure with primitive cubic symmetry. Given the poor chemical contrast of X-ray diffraction between Mn and Co, Ni or Cu, LiMn1.5M0.5O4 samples were studied by neutron diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Both techniques show the occurence of cationic ordering for M = Ni and Cu, but not for Co or Ga. In the case of M = Zn, further complication due Li/Zn ordering on the tetrahedral (8a) site is well resolved by FTIR. This investigation shows that the main driving force for octahedral cation ordering is the charge difference between Mn and M atoms.

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Strobel, P., Ibarra-Palos, A. & Poinsignon, C. Cation Ordering in Substituted LiMn2O4 Spinels. MRS Online Proceedings Library 756, 54 (2002).

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