We have investigated the effect of Bi on the homoepitaxial growth of Fe(100) by means of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). It was clearly found that Bi induces layer-by-layer growth of Fe on Fe(100)-c(2×2)O reconstruction surface. The result of the dependence of the growth behavior as a function of Bi layer thickness suggests that there is optimum amount of Bi surfactant layer that induces the smoother layer-by-layer growth. A strong surface segregation of Bi was found at the top of surface and acts as a surfactant by promoting the interlayer transport.
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Kamiko, M., Chihaya, H., Mizuno, H. et al. Bismuth-Induced Layer-by-Layer Growth in the Homoepitaxial Growth of Fe(100). MRS Online Proceedings Library 749, 45 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-749-W4.5