Carrier Illumination™ (CI) is an optical technique for non-destructive in-line monitoring of post-anneal junction depth and pre-anneal PAI depth and dose with wafer mapping capabilities. This work intends to extend the use of the CI-measurements from a range-specific quantitative measurement towards a more universal quantitative analysis of junction depth, profile abruptness and implant dose. For that purpose this paper presents a systematic study of the CI response to a wide variety of post anneal implant processes, varying parameters including implant species, dose and energy, annealing condition, and surface preparation.
Samples containing B, BF2 and As-implants with and without Ge PAI layers, with junction depths between 10–120 nm, were measured. In addition near-ideal box-like profiles (as obtained with CVD-growth) were fabricated and measured. For the abrupt CVD profiles, CI measures the junction position with sub-nm resolution independent of the CI-analysis conditions. For more graded profiles resulting from annealed implants, the correlation to the SIMS junction depth becomes a function of generation laser current (which is proportional to the applied power). As the concentration level, at which the correlation is made, can be adjusted over a concentration range of approximately 2×1018 to 2×1019/cm3 by changing the laser current, a route towards correlating the CI measurement with profile abruptness becomes feasible.
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Clarysse, T., Vandervorst, W., Lindsay, R. et al. Junction and Profile Analysis using Carrier Illumination. MRS Online Proceedings Library 717, 73 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-717-C7.3