Argonne National Laboratory has developed an electrometallurgical treatment for DOE spent metallic nuclear fuel. Fission products are immobilized in a durable glass bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (CWF) suitable for long term storage in a geological repository. Cesium is estimated to be in the waste form at approximately 0.1 wt.%. The exact disposition of cesium was uncertain and it was believed to be uniformly distributed throughout the waste form. A correlation of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), electron microscopy (EM), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) performed on surrogate ceramic waste forms with high cesium loadings found a high cesium content in the glass phase and in several non-sodalite aluminosilicate phases. Cesium was not detected in the sodalite phase.
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Lambregts, M.J., Frank, S.M. Preliminary Studies of the Disposition of Cesium in a Glass-Bonded Sodalite Waste form. MRS Online Proceedings Library 713, 1121 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-713-JJ11.21