Silane adhesion promoters are seeing increasing use in microelectronic packaging applications. For example, they are currently used to adhere the passivating polymer overlayer to oxide. In this paper, we present detailed studies of silane adhesion promoters on the silicon oxide surface. Two common promoters (aminopropyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriethoxysilane) as well as non-functional silanes are investigated. It was found that without a functional end group, long carbon chain silanes can severely degrade adhesion, resulting in interfaces weaker than if no silane is used. Several spin coat solution formulations are used in depositing these films. The resulting surface coverage is examined and quantified using XPS, and the adhesion behavior of various promoter films is tested in sandwich structures using a fracture mechanics approach. Finally, spin-coat solution concentration, surface coverage, and interface fracture energy are compared for the amine functional promoter.
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Jenkins, M., Snodgrass, J., Chesterman, A. et al. Adhesion Mechanisms of Silane Adhesion Promoters in Microelectronic Packaging. MRS Online Proceedings Library 682, 64 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-682-N6.4