Diffusion behavior of Ca2+ ions in water-saturated, compacted Na-montmorillonite was studied for the safety assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The diffusion coefficients of Ca2+ ions in compacted Na-montmorillonite obtained in this study were from 1.7×10-11 to 6.0×10-12 m2 s-1 with increasing dry density of 1.0 to 1.8 Mg m-3. These values were approximately a quarter those of Na+ ions at each dry density. This suggests that the diffusion of Ca2+ ions could be the rate-determining mechanism for the alteration of Na-montmorillonite into Ca-montmorillonite. The activation energy for diffusion of Ca2+ ions was almost equal to that in free water (17.3 kJ mol-1) at dry densities of 1.0 to 1.6 Mg m-3. However, the activation energy suddenly increased to 25.1 kJmol-1 at a dry density of 1.8 Mg m-3. This increase cannot be explained using a single-diffusion process model, such as the pore-water diffusion model. Diffusion behavior of Ca2+ ions in compacted montmorillonite along with the experimental data on the basal spacing and water content of montmorillonite, and the activation energy for diffusion of Ca2+ and several other ions are discussed.
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Kozaki, T., Adachi, Y., Inada, K. et al. Diffusion Behavior of Ca2+ Ions in Compacted Na-Montmorillonite. MRS Online Proceedings Library 663, 629 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-663-629