High Level Liquid Waste Solidification Using a “Cold” Crucible Induction Melter

Abstract

At the present time the primary problem in a closed nuclear fuel cycle is the management of high level liquid waste (HLLW) generated by the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Long-term storage of the HLLW, even in special storage facilities, poses a real threat of ecological accidents. This problem can be solved by incorporating the radioactive waste into solid fixed forms that minimize the potential for biosphere pollution by long-lived radionuclides and ensure ecologically acceptable safe storage, transportation, and disposal. In the present report, the advantages of a two-stage HLLW solidification process using a “cold” crucible induction melter (CCIM) are considered in comparison with a one-stage vitrification process in a ceramic melter.

This paper describes the features of a process and equipment for a two-stage HLLW solidification technology using a “cold” crucible induction melter (CCIM) and identifies the advantages compared to a one-stage ceramic melter. A two-stage pilot facility and the technical characteristics of the equipment are described using a once-through evaporator and cold-crucible induction melter currently operational at the IA.Mayak. facility in Ozersk, Russia. The results of pilot-plant tests with simulated HLLW to produce a phosphate glass are described. Features of the new mineral-like waste form matrices synthesized by the CCIM method are also described. Subject to further development, the CCIM technology is planned to be used to solidify all accumulated HLLW at Mayak–first to produce borosilicate glass waste forms and then mineral-like waste forms.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    A. S. Nikiforov, V.V. Kulichenko, M.I. Jiharev. Liquid Radioactive Waste Immobilization., Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    “Evaluation of Spent Fuel as a Final Waste Form,” Technical reports series, 1991, N 320, Vienna, IAEA, p. 81.

  3. 3.

    T. Hirabayashi, T. Sato, C. Sagawa, N. M. Masaki, M. Saeki, T. Adachi, Proceedings Int. Conf. RECOD-91, 1991, v. 2, pp. 903–908.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    A. Atkinson, A. K. Nickerson, R. J. Taylor, Journal of Materials Science, 1982, v. 17, pp. 2979–2989.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M. Saydler, M. Sappok, “Atomnaya Tehnika za Rubezom”, 1998, v. 2, pp.. 39–41.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A. Jouan, Y. Hery, R. Boen, Proceedings Int. Conf. RECOD - 87, 1987, Paris, France, pp. 723–729.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    T. V. Smelova, N. V. Krylova, I. N. Shestoperov, Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XX, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp., Boston, 1997, v. 465, pp. 425–431.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    N. V. Krylova, N. D. Musatov, T. V. Smelova, et al., Proc. Conf. of NS International RF, 1992, pp. 38–46.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    V. V. Kushnikov, N. V. Krylova et al., Proc. Mendeleev.s Conf., RF, Moscow, 1993, v. 2, pp. 85–86.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andrei V. Demine.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Demine, A.V., Krylova, N.V., Polyektov, P.P. et al. High Level Liquid Waste Solidification Using a “Cold” Crucible Induction Melter. MRS Online Proceedings Library 663, 27 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-663-27

Download citation