Glass spheres were used as a model system to investigate granule failure during die compaction. Stresses within an assembly of spheres follow a network of pathways. When the spheres are of uniform composition, the magnitude of the stresses within a pair of contacting granules is a function of the locally transmitted stress and the diameter of the two spheres. Results obtained using glass spheres demonstrated the statistical nature of granule failure during compaction, with some granules failing at very low applied pressures while others (~40% by volume) persist at even the highest applied loads. Within a distribution of granule sizes, those granules with smaller diameter were seen to have a higher probability of failure at low pressure than were larger granules. These results are consistent with those observed during die compaction of granulated alumina powder.
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Walker, W.J. Persistence of Granular Structure during Die Compaction of Ceramic Powders. MRS Online Proceedings Library 627, 64 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-627-BB6.4