Experimental measurements of discharge rate and observations of flow pattern were made for spherical, monosized particles in a liquid- filled, hourglass shaped container. Different combinations of fluid properties, solid properties and vessel geometry exhibited a range of flow patterns that are described as lubricated, fluidized, oscillatory, or localized channeling discharges. A Bagnold number is used to present the discharge rate and flow regime results.
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Muite, B.K., Hunt, M.L. Liquid Filled Hourglasses: A Study of Interstitial Fluid Effects on the Kinetic Behavior of Granular Materials. MRS Online Proceedings Library 627, 45 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-627-BB4.5