Novel amorphous transparent conductive oxides, InGaO3(ZnO)m, where m is an integer less than four, was developed. Optical transmittance in the visible region exceeded over 80 % and the electric conductivity at 300 K was as large as 400 S/cm. Both Seebeck and Hall coefficients exhibited negative values, indicating the conduction was n-type. It was suggested that 4s orbital of Zn2+ played a significant role for the formation of the extended state responsible for the conduction, while In3+ acted as a modifier for the stabilization of amorphous state.
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Orita, M., Ohta, H., Hirano, M. et al. Properties of a Novel Amorphous Transparent Conductive Oxide, InGaO3(ZnO)m. MRS Online Proceedings Library 623, 291 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-623-291