Liquidus temperatures (TL) were measured for high-level waste (HLW) borosilicate glasses covering a Savannah River composition region. The primary crystallization phase for most glasses was spinel, a solid solution of trevorite (NiFe2O4) with other oxides (FeO, MnO, and Cr2O3). The TL values ranged from 859 to 1310°C. Component additions increased the TL (per mass%) as Cr2O3 261°C, NiO 85°C, TiO2 42°C, MgO 33°C, A12O3 18°C, and Fe2O3 18°C and decreased the TL (per mass%) as Na2O −29°C, Li2O −28°C, K2O −20°C, and B2O3 −8°C. Other oxides (CaO, MnO, SiO2, and U3O8) had little effect. The effect of RuO2 is not clear.
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Hrma, P., Vienna, J., Crum, J. et al. Liquidus Temperature of High-Level Waste Borosilicate Glasses With Spinel Primary Phase. MRS Online Proceedings Library 608, 671 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-608-671