This paper discussed the effects of solution velocity thorough the cementitious materials on formation of secondary minerals. These minerals were produced by the reaction of hydrates in cement and chemicals in groundwater. The chemicals estimated were NaHCO3, Na2SO4 and NaCl. Calcite yielded by the reaction of carbonate ion and Ca2+ was found to cause a change in the porosity volume of cement, and thus, to decrease the flow rate. The existence of sulfate ion did not affect the flow rate. However, in the case of a solution containing both chloride and carbonate ions, the flow rate increased because Ca dissolution from hydrates was induced.
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Toyohara, M., Kaneko, M., Matsumura, F. et al. Study on the Effects of Hydraulic Transport of Groundwater in Cement. MRS Online Proceedings Library 608, 337 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-608-337