Defect Complexes and Non-Equilibrium Processes Underlying the P-Type Doping of GaN

Abstract

It is well known that hydrogen plays a key role in p-type doping of GaN. It is believed that H passivates substitutional Mg during growth by forming a Mgs-N-Hi complex; in subsequent annealing, H is removed, resulting in p-type doping. Several open questions have remained, however, such as experimental evidence for other complexes involving Mg and H and difficulties in accounting for the relatively high-temperature anneal needed to remove H. We present first principles calculations in terms of which we show that the doping process is in fact significantly more complex. In particular, interstitial Mg plays a major role in limiting p-type doping. Overall, several substitutional/interstitial complexes form and can bind H, with vibrational frequencies that account for hitherto unidentified observed lines. We predict that these defects, which limit doping efficiency, can be eliminated by annealing in an atmosphere of H and N prior to the final anneal that removes H.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, Appl. Phys Lett. 64, 1687 (1994)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 1a

    S. Nakamura et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 2.

    J. A. Van Vechten, J. D. Zook, R. D. Horning and B. Goldenberg, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3662 (1992)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 2a

    M. Johnson and D. P. Bour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3470 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 3.

    M.S. Brandt et al., Appl. Phys Lett. 64, 2264 (1994); M. S. Brandt et al., Phys. Rev. B 49, 14758 (1994) and references therein.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 4.

    W. Goetz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, and R. A. Street, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 667 (1996); W. Goetz, N. M. Johnson, D. P. Bour, M. D. McCluskey, and E. E. Haller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3725 (1996); W. Goetz, N

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 5.

    J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8067 (1994); Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4452 (1995); ibid., Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1829 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 6.

    C. G. Van de Walle, Phys Rev. B 56, R 10020 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 7.

    P. Boguslawski, E. L. Briggs, and J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17255 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 8.

    M. C. Payne, M. P. Teter, D. C. Allan, T. A. Arias and J. D. Joannopoulos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 64, 1045 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 9.

    F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and A. Bosin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2990 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 10.

    C. H. Park and D. J. Chadi, Phys. Rev. B 55, 12995 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 11.

    D. J. Chadi, and M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5747 (1973).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 12.

    L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, (Pergamon, Oxford, 1997).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fernando A. Reboredo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Reboredo, F.A., Pantelides, S.T. Defect Complexes and Non-Equilibrium Processes Underlying the P-Type Doping of GaN. MRS Online Proceedings Library 537, 53 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-537-G5.3

Download citation