The production of large diameter, high quality boules of SiC is essential to realize the full potential of this important semiconductor material. The objective of this paper is to provide a state-of-the-art analysis of the key directions for SiC bulk growth research, as well as presenting our most recent empirical results. Based on an analytical review of current knowledge, the following topics concerning growth of large 6H and 4H-SiC bulk crystals are discussed: 1) thermodynamics of the vapor phase including the efficiency of crystal growth, 2) kinetics of growth including mass transport in the boundary layer and 3) defect formation processes including thermoelastic stress. In addition, results of growth modeling are summarized and direction for further work suggested. Results on growth of semi-insulating and 50–75 mm diameter 4H-SiC wafers are presented. A discussion on micropipes, which are currently the most harmful defect in SiC wafers is presented. Although several mechanisms, or combinations of mechanisms, cause micropipes in SiC boules grown by the seeded sublimation method, we have reduced micropipe densities by orders of magnitude over the last few years. This continual reduction and the production of wafers with micropipe densities of less than 1 cm-2 (with >1 cm2 areas void of micropipes), indicate that micropipes will be reduced to a level that makes high current devices viable and that they may soon be totally eliminated.
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Tsvetkov, V.F., Henshall, D.N., Brady, M.F. et al. A Theoretical and Empirical Perspective of SiC Bulk Growth. MRS Online Proceedings Library 512, 89–99 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-512-89