Doping of GaN by Ion Implantation: Does it Work?


Epitaxially grown GaN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC were implanted with 100 keV Si+ (for n-type) and 80 keV Mg+ (for p-type) with various fluences from 1×1012 to 7×1015 ions/cm2 at liquid nitrogen temperature (LT), room temperature (RT), and 700 °C (HT). High temperature (1200 °C and 1500 °C) annealing was carried out after capping the GaN with epitaxial AIN by MOCVD to study damage recovery. Samples were capped by a layer of AIN in order to protect the GaN surface during annealing. Effects of implant temperature, damage and dopant activation are critically studied to evaluate a role of ion implantation in doping of GaN. The damage was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling, spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence. Results show dependence of radiation damage level on temperature of the substrate during implantation: implantations at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C decrease the lattice disorder; “hot implants” above 550 °C can not be useful in doping of GaN due to nitrogen loss from the surface. SE measurements have indicated very high sensitivity to the implantation damage. PL measurements at LT of 80 keV Mg+ (5×1014 cm-2) implanted and annealed GaN showed two peaks: one ∼100 meV and another ∼140 meV away from the band edge.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    H. Sakai, T. Koide, H. Suzuki, M. Yamaguchi, S. Yamasaki, M. Koike, H. Amano and I. Akasaki, Jpn. J. Appl.., 34, L1429 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa and S. Nagahama, (1995) Appl. Phys. Lett., 67, 1868 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku and Y. Sugimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 35, L74 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, J. Appl. Phys., 79, 7433 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, J. N. Kuznia, Q. Chen, J. Burm and W. Schaff, Appl. Phys. Lett., 66, 1083 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    B. Goldenberg, J. D. Zook and R. J. Ulmer, Appl. Phys. Lett., 62, 381 (1993).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    C. R. Abernathy, J. D. Mackenzie, S. J. Pearton and W. S. Hobson, Appl. Phys. Lett., 66, 1969 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    R. Kaplan, S. M. Prokes, S. C. Binari and G. Kelner, Appl. Phys. Lett., 68, 3248 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    K. Wongchotigul, N. Chen, D. P. Zhang, X. Tang and M. G. Spencer, Mater. Letter, 26, 223 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    H. H. Tan, J. S. Williams, C. Yuan and S. J. Pearton, MRS Symp. Proc. Vol.395, 807 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    J. C. Zolper, J.Of Crystal Growth, 178, 157 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    I. Akasaki, H. Amano, M. Kito and K. Hiromatsu, J. Lumin., 48/49, 666 (1991).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    W. Gotz, N. M. Johnson, C. Chen, H. Liu, C. Kuo and W. Imler, Appl. Phys. Lett., 68, 22 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    J. C. Kim, A. C. Frenkel, H. Liu and R. M. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett., 65, 91 (1994).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    T. W. Weeks, Jr., M. D. Bremser, K. S. Alley, E. Carlson, W. G. Perry and R. F. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67 (1995) 401.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    J. F. Zeigler, J. P. Biersak and U. Littmark, in:The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter, Vol.1 (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

  17. 17.

    N. Parikh, A. Suvkhanov, M. Lioubtchenko, E. Carlson, M. Bremser, D. Bray, R. Davis and J. Hunn, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 127/128 (1997) 463

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Suvkhanov.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Suvkhanov, A., Hunn, J., Wu, W. et al. Doping of GaN by Ion Implantation: Does it Work?. MRS Online Proceedings Library 512, 475–480 (1998).

Download citation