Yellow luminescence (YL) from GaN was systematically investigated through the intentional introduction of carbon, from propane, and excess H2 during growth by the halide vapor phase epitaxy technique. All GaN films were studied by photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction and Hall measurements. The unintentionally doped GaN showed undetectable or very weak YL signal, while both C-doping and H2 addition resulted in a significant enhancement of YL. The blue- and red-shift of the YL band of the C-doped and ‘H2-grown’ GaN with the increasing temperature indicated that different mechanisms existed in these two cases. The temperature dependence of the integrated intensity of the YL band of both groups implicated that shallow donors, not ‘shallow’ acceptors participated the YL transition and that there were more than one radiative recombination channel within the YL band.
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The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Navel Research Laboratory, the DARPA URI visible light emitters, and the facilities support of the NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center on Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces.
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Zhang, R., Kuech, T.F. Carbon and Hydrogen Induced Yellow Luminescence in Gallium Nitride Grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy. MRS Online Proceedings Library 482, 732–737 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-482-709