The purpose of this paper is to explore the formation of water residues on wafers during drying. To investigate this DI water droplets were intentionally placed on the surface of substrates with various wettabilities and then left to dry in both N2 and O2 atmospheres. It was found that both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces created the water mark in N2 and O2. The size and dry time of residues were dependent on the wettability of surfaces. Auger analysis of residues showed that the oxidation of surface in water might be one of causes of water mark formation. Considering the pore size of final filters in DI water generation is 0.05 μn, a large number of particles less than 0.05 μm ay be in DI water. In order to investigate the effect of small particles less than 0.05 μm on water mark formation, PSL particles less than 0.05 μm were added to DI water. DI water containing particles was left to dry as a function of particle concentrations. The size of water marks was dependent on the concentration of particles in DI water after they reached a critical concentration.
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This research was partially supported by Center for Electronic Materials and Components of Hanyang University. Special thanks go to Dr. H. S. Song of Dong Woo Pure Chemicals’ Research Center for supplying chemicals and AAS-GF analysis.
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Park, JG., Han, JH., Kim, SH. et al. The Formation of Water Marks on Both Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Wafers. MRS Online Proceedings Library 477, 513–518 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-477-513