Copper was deposited onto TiN by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, using hfacCu(I)TMVS and argon carrier gas. The effects of the deposition temperature on the growth of copper films were investigated by observing the surface morphology and the cross sectional morphology of copper films. At the initial stage of growth, copper films tended to have the island-like growth mode, irrespective of the deposition temperatures. It was also observed that the aspect ratio(=height to width) of the islands gradually increased as the deposition temperature increased. The poorer movability of the copper atoms at the higher deposition temperature was evaluated on the basis of hindering effect by the following copper deposits.
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Yoon, S.S., Kang, S.W. & Chun, S.S. The Effects of Deposition temperature on the Growth of Copper films produced by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. MRS Online Proceedings Library 391, 315 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-391-315