A model for the texture evolution of a growing film was developed, where the tendency for the lowest possible surface energy was taken as the driving force. Two main directions were considered in the orientation distribution of the columns. An initially isotropic distribution was found to evolve to a bimodal one and finally to a distribution with a sharp peak around the orientation with the smallest surface energy. For specific initial conditions the texture turns over from one orientation to the other one. The calculated textures showed a continuous sharpening around orientations with a local or absolute minimum in the surface energy. Various calculated phenomena concerning the texture evolution could be observed on PVD deposited TiN coatings.
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Knuyt, G., Quaeyhaegens, C., D’Haen, J. et al. A Model for Texture Evolution in a Growing Film. MRS Online Proceedings Library 389, 137–142 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-389-137