Magnetic Properties and Structural Transformation in Copper-304 Stainless Steel Multilayer Materials


Multilayer foils of Cu-304 stainless steel (304SS) with equal layer thicknesses in the range t=5.0-500 Å and total thicknesses 10-20 μm have been synthesized using magnetron sputtering at ambient substrate temperature. The x-ray diffraction data of as-deposited films show two structural regimes: small thickness (t=5-10 Å) which is characterized by epitaxial FCC growth of 304SS on copper, and large thickness (t=13.5-500 Å) which shows epitaxial FCC 304SS growth near the interface and BCC 304SS growth away from the interface. FCC structured films show very small magnetic moments at room temperature similar to bulk 304SS stable FCC phase. However, a strong magnetic moment is observed for thicker samples due to ferromagnetic metastable 304SS BCC phase. Two opposing transformations occur in the 304 layers as the samples are heated. The first transformation is from the metastable BCC 304SS to the stable FCC phase. This transformation produces a strong drop in magnetic moment and is clearly visible in the large period multilayers which contain high volume fractions of BCC 304SS. The second transformation is from the original FCC phase to a new stable BCC phase in the 304SS near the copper-304SS interfaces.The transformation is produced by diffusion of nickel from the 304SS into the surroundingcopper and the chemical destabilization of the FCC phase which starts near 400 ºC.This transformation produces a sharp increase in magnetic moment. The magnetic signal drops to zero near 675 ºC which is the Curie temperature of ferromagnetic BCC Fe.75 Cr25

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Parvin, K., Weathersby, S.P., Barbee, T.W. et al. Magnetic Properties and Structural Transformation in Copper-304 Stainless Steel Multilayer Materials. MRS Online Proceedings Library 382, 191 (1995).

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