Sputter deposition of TiNi has been problematic due to the extreme reactivity of titanium. There are several advantages in depositing TiNi with other metals, such as Ti and Cu, as the Shape Memory Effect properties can be changed selectively, including coring of the thin film. Simultaneous co-deposition of cored material using sputter deposition becomes technically difficult as this implies that the sample to target distance increases. In this paper, we discuss a relationship developed so that a basic base vacuum pressure can be found with target-sample distance and correlated with the observed phases for both Ti and TiNi samples. Practical limitations imposed by the vacuum system on both devices and device quality are discussed
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Peter Jardine, A. Deposition Parameters for Sputter-Deposited Thin Film TiNi. MRS Online Proceedings Library 360, 293–298 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-360-293