The discovery of a catalytic route to the growth of single-layer carbon nanotubes suggests that it may be possible to produce these materials with better selectivity and in higher yield1,2. Increasing the production efficiency is essential for characterization and application of these materials. We have discovered several catalyst promoters, in particular S, Bi, and Pb, that greatly enhance the single-layer carbon nanotube yield, and extend the distribution of nanotube diameters to much larger sizes (> 3 nm). Co crystallites encapsulated in graphitic polyhedra also form abundantly when S, Bi, or W is present. Understanding these catalytic process is of substantial scientific and technological importance.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, Nature 363, 603 (1993).
D. S. Bethune, C-H. Kiang, M. S. de Vries, G. Gorman, R. Savoy, J. Vazquez and R. Beyers, Nature 363, 605 (1993).
S. Iijima, Nature 354, 56 (1991).
M. Endo, K. Takeuchi, S. Igarashi, K. Kobori, M. Shiraishi, and H. W. Kroto, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1841 (1993).
M. Ge and K. Sattler, Science 260, 515 (1993).
Y. Saito, T. Yoshikawa, M. Okuda, M. Ohkohchi, M. Inagaki, Y. Ando, A. Kasuya and Y. Nishina, Chem. Phys. Lett. 209, 72 (1993).
S. Seraphin, in Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Physics of Fullerenes and Related Materials, edited by K. M. Kadish and R. S. Ruoff (Electrochemical Soc. Pennington, NJ, 1994).
S. Subramoney, R. S. Ruoff, D. C. Lorents, and R. Malhotra, Nature 366, 637 (1994).
D. Zhou, S. Seraphin and S. Wang, in Novel Forms of Carbon, (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc, San Francisco, CA 1994).
C.-H. Kiang, W. A. Goddard III, R. Beyers, J. R. Salem, and D. S. Bethune, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 6612 (1994).
R. Saito, M. Fujita, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 19, 185 (1993).
T. A. Bekkedahl and M.J. Heben (private communication).
About this article
Cite this article
Kiang, CH., Goddard, W.A., Beyers, R. et al. Effects of Catalyst Promoters on the Growth of Single-Layer Carbon Nanotubes. MRS Online Proceedings Library 359, 69–74 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-359-69